Newton County

Veterans of the Armed Service

 

 Indian Wars

Burke, John R.

Ford, David

Hoger, John M

Lewis, Samuel S.

Lindsey, Elijah

Robinson, William D.

Rogers, Irvin

Woods, John

 

American Revolution

1776

Holmes, Thomas C.

Williams, Stephen

 

War Of 1812

Hughes, Robert

Robinson, W. D.

Smith, William

Williams, Stephen

 

Texas Revolution

1836

Albright, A. F.

Davis, Pleasant B

Irvin, Josephus Somerville

Lewis, John T.

Lewis, Martin B.

Lewis, Samuel S.

Lewis, William McFarland

McFarland, Thomas Stuart

McMahon, William Sr.

Stephenson, Ira

Tanner, Thomas

West, Jefferson

Wilkinson, John

Williams, Stephen & 3 Sons

 

Mexican War

1846-1848

Droddy, W. A.

Robinson, W. D.

Willis, W. C.

 

War Between The States

1861-1865

Adams, George

 Federal

Adams, Hyram

 

Adams, Thomas F.

 

Albright, J. J.

 

Allbright, A. F.

CSA 

Alley, Alphonos H.

 

Ashworth, Levi A.

 

Barrett, N. P.

 

Bass, Kenion Elmer

 

Beck, S. R.

 

Belk, Andrew H.

 

Bennington, John

 

Boandon, J. D.

 

Bonner, T. J.

 

Brack, Barnet

 

Brack, H. F.

 

Brack, Thoma

 

Brandon, J. D.

 

Brailsford, Joseph Robert

CSA

Burnham, Marion L.

CSA

Butler, B. F.

 

Byerly, Richard

 

Byerly, William

 

Carleton, James B.

 

Caey, H. J.

CSA

Casey, Henry J.

CSA

Chaddick, Isaac

CSA

Chance, William

 

Chance, William F.

 

Chapman, W.

 

Chapman, W. N.

 

Clark, M. M.

 CSA 

Cochran, Alfred

 

Cochran, D. C.

 

Cochran, Jacob

 

Cochran, J. L.

 

Collins, C. W.

 

Collins, W. J.

 

Colville, Jehu P.

 

Colville, John T.

 

Colville, Lewis H.

 

Davison, William

CSA 

Davis, J. R.

 

Dehart, Able

 

Dehart, John

 

Denby , A. C.

 

Denby , William

 

Didham, Captain E. G.

 

Dority, J. B.

 

Droddy, W. A.

 

Dubose, Amos

 

Dyer, J. L.

 

Dyes, J. L.

 

Eason, J. B.

 

Eason, S. W.

 

Edgar, E. B. T.

 

England, Thomas

 

Erwin, Leroy J.

 

Erwin, John L.

 

Farnham, David H.

 CSA 

Ford, Harrison

 

Ford, John David

 

Ford, Thomas

 

Fowler, J. R.

 

Fowler, S. A.

 

Fuller, Henry

 

Fuller, John

 

Gee, George

 

Gibbs, Captain Walter Carr

 

Gilchrist, William Clarence

 

Gilchrist, D. R.

 

Green, G. W.

 

Grimes, Thomas

 

Griner, William Berry

 

Gray, Simeon

CSA

Gray, William A.

CSA

Hall, Jason

 

Hall, Q. M.

 

Hall, William M.

 CSA

Hancock, Charles A.

 CSA

Hardy, K. A. P.

 

Hardy, Theophilus

 

Hawthorne, Polk

 

Hawthorne, Winont

 

Herrin, Jack A.

 CSA

Herrin, Samuel McFarland

 

Herrin, Steve B.

 CSA

Herrington, James

CSA

Hext, R. Y

 CSA 

Hines, Captain M. D., Sr.

 

Holland, W. A.

 

Holmes, Charles Austin

 

Holmes, Claiborne

 

Holmes, Ferdinand Harper

 

Holmes, Joe

 

Holmes, Thomas C.

 

Holmes, Major Thomas C.

 

Holmes, Thomas H. Buck

 

Holmes, W. H. J.

 

Holt, James

 

Howell, J. J.

 

Huffman, Valentine Pierce

CSA

Hughes, Robert E.

 

Inman, William J.

 

Irvin, James Pataton

 

Irvin, J. G.

 

Irvin, J. S.

 

Jarrell, Henry

 

Jeffers, Bailos Earl

 CSA

Jeffeys, J. M.

 

Jetter, William E.

 

Joiner, Edmund

 

Joiner, Robert

 

Jones, D. M.

 

Jones, F. C.

 

Keller, W. H.

 

Kelley, M. W.

 

Kelley, W. N.

 

Kimmey, F. D. L. (Larue)

 

Lancaster, C. W.

 

Landrum, William Henry

 

Lavine, William

 

Lee, James R.

 

Lee, James Richard

 

Lee, Jesse

 

Lee, John H.

 

Lee, William T.

 

Lenahan, C.

 

Leonard, J. W.

 

Leonard, Tom

 

Lewis, Asa S.

 

Lewis, George W.

 

Lewis, William M.

 

Lottie, O. L.

 

Lynch, E. G.

 

Lynch, J. C.

 

Lynch, John

 

Marshall, Curtis

 

Martin, Samuel Hoy

 

Matthews, S. H.

CSA 

Mattox, J. M.

 

McDonald, James W.

 

McDonald, William S.

 

McLemore, John

 

McKinnon, Dr. A. J.

 

McMahon, Argalus

 

McMahon, Isaac Stephen

 

McMahon, John Wesley

 CSA 

McMahon, W. L.

 

McWilliams, Dabney

 

McWilliams, Jeptha

 

McWilliams, Pierce E.

 

McWilliams, William H.

 

McWilliams, William H., Jr.

 

McWilliams, Wright H.

 

McWhorter, A. A.

 

Meggo, D. W.

 

Mers , Andrew

 

Miles, J. R.

 

Morgan, James

 

Morgan, Mal

 

Murchinson, Lloyd

 CSA

Musgrove, A. J.

 

Nations, William

 

Newton, Q. M.

 

Norsworthy, B. H.

 

Norsworthy, John

 

Norvell, Lipscomb, Jr.

 

Norvell, William

 

O'brien, J. Patreick

 

Odom, David

 

Odom, Richard

 

Odom, Wm.

 

Pace, N. A.

 

Perpego, Dr. E. J.

CSA

Pierce , J. M. (Jake)

 

Powell, Benjamin

 

Powell, B. Z.

CSA

Powell, J. M.

 

Price, F. P.

 

Priswell, J. C.

 

Ramsey, James T.

 

Ragsdale, Cod

 

Rice, A. H.

 

Rodgers, Jack

 

Rogers, A. C.

 

Rogers, Jerret I.

CSA

Rogers, Jesse B.

 

Rogers, Mason A.

 

Rolles, W. H.

 

Ross, W. M.

 

Ruthledge, J. M.

 

Scott, James B.

 

Seastrunk, S.

 

Seastrunk, Sims

 

Simmons, Stephen

 

Simmons, William

CSA

Sise, J. R.

 

Slank, D. D.

 

Slaughter, Geo.

 

Smith, Dewitt Clinton

 

Smith Elraha

 

Smith, J. D.

 

Smith, Newton J.

 

Smith, Robt.

 

Smith, Virgil

 

Smith, Wm.

 

Snell, E. I. D.

 

Stanz, T. P.

 

Stark, D. D.

 

Stark, Daniel L.

 

Stark, John H.

 

Stark, Samuel H.

 

Stephenson, A. M.

 

Stephenson, H. B.

 

Stephenson, J. W.

 

Stewart, A. E.

 

Stewart, R. M.

 

Stovall, Dave

 

Strong, T. E.

 

Strong, T. J.

 

Swift, George

 

Tanner, Isaac E.

 

Tanner, J. Lafayette

CSA

Tanner, Nathan I.

CSA

Tanner, Orion O.

CSA

Taylor, Francis M.

 

Tenny, A. C.

 

Thompson, Joseph

 

Timmer, L. J.

 

Trotti, J. L.

 

Wallea, James

 

Walton, B. A.

 

West, James

 

West, Richard

 

Westbrook, Joshua

 CSA 

Westbrook, Henry

 

Westbrook, Stephen

 

Westbrook, W. B.

 CSA 

Welch, F. T.

 

Whitman, Benjamin

 

Whitman, George

 

Whitman, Joe

 

Whitman, John A.

 

Wilkerson, William

CSA 

Wilson, Asbury

 CSA 

Wilson, Edward

 

Wilson, Francis, Jr.

 

Wilson, Thomas P.

 

Wilson, William E.

 CSA 

WILSON, William S.

 CSA 

Wingate, D. R.

 

Wingate, John

 

Wingate, S. B.

 

Wistuning, H. S.

 

Witherington, N. A.

 

Witherington, A. N.

 

Woods, Allen

 

Woods, Calaway

 

Woods, M. W.

 

Wright, William H.

CSA

Young, Chesley M.

CSA

Young, Jonathan

 

Young, Samuel Stedman

CSA

Youngblood, John J.

CSA

Youngblood, John Ira

CSA

Youngblood, Richard Dick

 

Zachary, William A.

 

 

Spanish American War

1898

Camerson, Charles

McMillan, B. F.

Ohman, Benjamin

 

World War I

1917-1918

World War I began with an assassin's bullet. Francis Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Hungary, was killed in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip. Princip maintained ties with a Serbian terrorist organization, leading Austrian-Hungarian leaders to believe that the assassination was sponsored by the Serbian government. This prompted Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia on July 28, 1914.

The war quickly escalated as European nations realized the far-reaching implications of this war. Germany joined with Austria-Hungary in a matter of days to form the Central Powers. Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire joined about two months later. Serbia was the first to make up the Allies. It was quickly joined by the British Empire, Belgium, France, and Japan. Other nations joined in the following years. A list of the Allies and Central Powers and the dates that they joined are as follows:

The Allies

Belgium (August 4, 1914)

Guatemala (April 23, 1918)

Panama (April 7, 1917)

Brazil (October 26, 1917)

Haiti (July 12, 1918)

Portugal (April 7, 1917)

British Empire (August 4, 1914)

Honduras (July 19, 1918)

Romania (August 27, 1916)

China (August 14, 1917)

Italy (May 23, 1915)

Russia (August 1, 1914)

Costa Rica (May 23, 1918)

Japan (August 23, 1914

San Marino (June 3, 1915)

Cuba (April 7, 1917)

Liberia (August 4, 1917)

Serbia (July 28, 1914)

France (August 3, 1914)

Montenegro (August 5, 1914)

Siam (July 22, 1917)

Greece (July 2, 1917)

Nicaragua (May 8, 1918)

United States (April 6, 1917)

 

The Central Powers

Austria-Hungary (July 28, 1914)

Germany (August 1, 1914)

Bulgaria (October 14, 1915)

Ottoman Empire (October 31, 1914)

 

Germany and Austria-Hungary were the major Central players. By the time the First World War broke out, the German army was the best trained army in the world. It used a mandatory draft to enlist all able-bodied men to serve. The Germans then focused on building a potent navy. At first, Austria-Hungary wanted the war to be solely between it and Serbia. However, when Russia mobilized to defend Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia. Germany then declared war on France. As the German forces swept into France, they invaded Belgium, a neutral country. This prompted Britain to declare war on Germany. Most other European countries quickly followed suit.

Germany's war plan had been devised long before the war was evident. The German strategy, the Schlieffen Plan, called for two wings of the German Army to sweep westward. This plan was followed well until the right wing got overambitious. It followed retreating French troops, leaving the Germans exposed from the rear. French forces, stationed at the Marne River, managed to defeat the Germans at the First Battle of the Marne. This major victory ended Germany's hope for a quick defeat of France. The Germans and the Allies then engaged in what was known as the Race to the Sea. The Germans hoped to cut off Allied ports. However, Allied forces, in the First Battle of Ypres, halted the German offensive. This battle lasted about a month.

On the Western Front, not much happened for about 31/2 years. This front consisted of about 750 miles of land.

Russia mobilized on the Eastern Front faster than expected. Almost immediately, Russia lost 250,000 men to the Austro-Hungarian army. During each of the three Austro-Hungarian assaults on Serbia, the Russians pushed them back. By October, the Austro-Hungarian army had retreated back to its own territory. In one of the largest battles of the war, the Battle of the Somme, over one million casualties were recorded, yet the Allies only gained about seven miles of ground. Even with massive battles such as these, the Western front stayed right where it was. During one Russian offensive orchestrated by Czar Nicholas II, the Russians took about 200,000 Austro-Hungarian prisoners. This was a great moment for the Allies, but Russia took a great deal of damage.

Italy, in a secret treaty with the Allies, would receive Austro-Hungarian land after the war in exchange for an attack on Austro-Hungarian forces. The Italian Front was a similar story to the Western Front. Several large battles took place. Little strategic territory was acquired by either side, but the Austro-Hungarian army suffered tremendous losses.

One of Germany's greatest achievements in wartime was the U-Boat. These submarines blockaded the British Isles and sank many merchant ships trying to deliver supplies to Britain. On May 17, 1915, a U-Boat sank the Lusitania, a cruise liner, killing 1,198 people, including 128 Americans. President Wilson, in response, urged Germany to cease this type of warfare. They agreed to stop attacks on neutral vessels. The Battle of Jutland, the only major sea battle of the war, caused major losses on both sides. However, Britain still ruled the seas.

A series of strategic blunders on the part of the Allies demoralized forces. It became more and more clear that the Austro-Hungarians might prevail. However, the United States soon entered the war after the interception of the "Zimmerman Note." This was a message from Germany's foreign minister to its ambassador to Mexico. The Note revealed a plot to persuade Mexico to declare war on the U.S. At the beginning of U.S. involvement, the Regular Army numbered about 126,000. By the war's end, there were about 5 million Armed Forces members.

In the last of three German offensives on the Western Front, the Second Battle of the Marne, the Germans were defeated. The Allies marched eastward, easily conquering most of the Germans' territory. In the Fall of 1918, the Allies won all fronts. On November 11, 1918, the Germans finally surrendered, ending the Great War. 10 million people had died; 21 million were wounded.

In May 1919, after threatening to invade Germany, the Allies presented the Treaty of Versailles to the Germans. On June 28, 1919, in the Palace of Versailles, German representatives signed the treaty. Along with this treaty, the Allies also created individual treaties for the remaining Central powers. Austria signed the Treaty of St.-Germain in September of 1919, Bulgaria the Treaty of Neuilly in November, Hungary the Treaty of Trianon in June 1920, and the Ottoman Empire the Treaty of Sèvres in August 1920. The provisions of these treaties follow:

The Treaty of Versailles (German)-

The Treaty of St.-Germain and the Treaty of Trianon reduced Austrian and Hungarian land while recognizing Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Yugoslavia as independent nations.

The Treaty of Sèvres took Lebanon, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and Transjordan away from the Ottoman Empire. Bulgaria also lost some of their territory to Greece and Romania.

Adams, Lee V.

 

Alfred, Duffie

 

Alfred, Robert

 

Arrant, Norman

 

Barlow, Daniel E.

 USA

Barnett, John E.

 

Bean, Arnold R.

 

Bean, Ed

 

Bean, John H.

 

Bean, Sol

 

Bickers, Henry B.

 

Bluitt, Blano

 

Boler, Benjamin, Sr.

 USA

Brack, Adrain S.

 USA

Brinson, Robert M.

 

Burnaman, Nolan Oree

 

Burnham, Cleveland G

USA

Byerly, Wirt A.

 

Bylery, Warren J.

 

Cade, Calvin

 

Cameron, Charles

 

Canes, Cornelius

 

Cato, Lewis

 

Clack, Richard

 

Clark, James M.

 

Clark, Joe Henry

 

Clary, Charles E.

 

Clossner, James C.

 

Cofty, William Cecil

 

Cole, Allen

 

Collins, Persy

 

Craig, Gilbert

 

Cratie, David

 

Crook, Jim H.

 

Daniel, Guy

 

Daniel, Roy

 

Davis, Carl Vernon

 

Davis, Chester

 

Davis, Joseph Lee

 

Davis, Robert M.

 USA

Davis, Samuel Olive

 

Dean, Albert

 

Derrough, James H.

 

Dickerson, Herbert, Sr.

 

Dickerson, J. T.

 USA

Diggs, Dudley

 

Dorman, Jeff

 

Dry, Edgar

 

Dubose, Paul

 

Ebarb, Henry

 

Erwin, Albert D.

 

Erwin, Dewey B.

 

Farr, Elden

 

La Fleur, Luke

 

Folsom, Edward O.

 

Forse, Floyd

 

Fowler, Samuel

 

Franklin, Marvin P.

 

Fuller, Wallace B.

 

Gasway, John R., Jr.

 

Gatson, Elige

 

Gibson, Thomas A.

 

Gilchrist, Patrick

 

Gill, John Herman

USA

Gooch, Robert L.

 

Gray, Ernest Paul

 

Greer, Harwell J.

 

Griggs, Joe W. T.

 

Gunter, General O.

 

Hall, Marvin E.

 

Hafford, Buster

 

Hamilton, John F.

 

Hardy, Vincent

USAAF

Harrell, Jess M.

 

Hawthorne, Simon

 

Herrin, Arthur B.

 

Hicks, Elijah

 

Hines, Ira

 

Holmes, John T.

USA

Horace, Grover C.

 

Horn, Marvin G.

 

Hughes, Benjamin Franklin

 

Hughes , John West

 

Inman, Archie L.

 

Irons, Hugh

 

Irvin, Clarence

 

Irvin, Joseph E.

 

Isaac, L. C.

 

Jackson, Charlie

 

Jones, Joshua

 

Jones, Robert C.

 

Johnson, Arron

 

Johnson, Albert G.

 

Johnson, Joe

 

Johnson, Prentis

 

Keen, John

 

Kelley, Ben F.

 

Kellum, Grover

 

King, Archie N.

 

Kimble, R. B.

 

Langston, Lee

 

Lasenby, Ika

 

Langley, Cary J.

 

Latham, Hilary B.

 

Leach, Craig

 

Leggett, Rufus Lester

 

Leviase, Tonnic

 

Lewis, Ottis H. (Bo)

 

Hoy E. Loftin

 

Love, Andrew Jackson

 

Marshall, Ernest E.

 

Marshall, Ernie

 

Matthews, Wiley

 

Mattox, Freddie

 

McCain, Griffin

 

McCully, Issac

 

McDaniel, Wert

 

McGraw, Emmett

 

McMillan, Deral

 

McMillan, Horace

 

McMillan, Woodrow

 

McDonald, Claude C.

 

Medley, Ramsey

 

Miller, Edward T.

 

Miller, George W.

 

Miller, Robert E.

 

Moore, Sam

 

Morris , Foster J.

 

Morris, John C.

 

Newberry, Jesse Allen

 

Newton, L. M. Goob

 

Nichols, Claudie

 

Nordstorm, Jas.

 

Peacock, Will

 

Pence, Samuel

 

Perkins, George

 

Peters, Lee

 

Pierce, Columbus

 

Poliey, Charles Ralph

 

Ratcliff, Herman

 

Ratcliff, John Logan

 

Rath, Leon Allen

 

Rawls, Dan

 

Rea, W. C.

 

Rhodes, Willie

 

Samuel , Connie

 

Samuel, L. D.

 

Samuel, Robert E.

 

Sellers, James

 

Shankle, William M.

 

Sherrod, Harvey C.

 

Simmons, Ben

 

Simmons, Don C.

 

Simmons, Edwin

 

Simmons, Lonnie T.

 

Simmons, L. C.

 

Simmons, L. G.

 

Simmons, Mark, Jr.

 

Simmons, Rufus R.

 

Simmons, Russell

 

Starks, Hubert A.

 

Russell Simmons

 

Wm. L. SIMMONS

 

Smart, Arthur, Jr.

 

Smith, Albert F.

 

Smith, James C.

 

Smith, Parson N.

 

Smith, Robert L.

 

Smith, Willie E.

 

Stark, Jesse E.

 

Stephenson, John Alvin

 

Stephenson, Wm. E.

 

Stephenson, Lloyd

 

Stewart, John E.

 

Strayhand, David

 

Sylvester, Herman

USA

Tanner, J. L.

 

Tanner, Orion O.

 

Thomas, Carl, Jr.

 

Thrasher, John L.

 

Tillery, Grady P.

 

Tompkins, Jesse W.

 

Twine, Ardest L.

 

Twine, J. P.

 

Tyler, Meredith (Hog)

 

Vancil, Leonard L.

 

Vincent, Hardy

 

Vinson, Homer

 

Walcock, Gordon H.

 

Watson, Frank

 

Watson, Sim S.

 

Westbrook, S. H.

 

Wilkinson , Austin

 

Williams, James H.

 

Williams, William M.

USA

Wilson, Frank

 

Wilson, H. F. (Pete)

 

Wilson, Herbert

 

Wilson, J. K., Jr.

 

Wilson, Joseph Jat

 

Wilson, Robert B.

 

Wingate, John

 

Woods, Claude

 

Woods, Dean

USN

Woods, Dewan

 

Woods, Fred

 

Woods, Wyonte

 

Wright, Arthur S.

 

Wright, Homer B.

 

Wright, Thomas R.

 USA

Young, Val

 

Youngblood, John Jackson

 

 

World War II

1941-1945

The Second World War was the most deadly, destructive and consequential war in history. Seventeen million military personnel died in the war. Civilian deaths in the Soviet Union and China alone totaled 30 million.

Causes of the war can be traced back to the end of World War I. Germany, Italy, and Japan suffered deep economic problems. Inflation was rampant. However, by the late 1920s, economic order was being restored. This trend reversed when the United States entered the Great Depression. The citizens of what would be the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) supported nationalistic organizations which offered hope in the face of these problems. These organizations soon gave birth to tyranny, however. Totalitarian dictatorships arose in the Soviet Union, Japan, Italy, and Germany; these were led by Josef Stalin, Emperor Hirohito, Benito Mussolini, and Adolf Hitler, respectively. These leaders seized power by promising reform through unity. Under the dictatorships, however, terror reigned. Dictators used secret police, threats, imprisonment and even executions to eliminate their opposition.

Some consider the start of World War II to be Japan's invasion of Manchuria, a region in eastern China. Japan continued to demonstrate aggression, effectively conquering eastern China by 1938. Italy, meanwhile, conquered Ethiopia in 1936. Germany, in 1938, united Austria with itself. There was essentially no stopping this aggression, since the League of Nations lacked the power to enforce its treaties. (The League had been formed after World War I as an international forum for disputes.) In 1936, German and Italy allied. Japan joined in 1940, forming the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis.

During this time, Spain was in civil war. General Francisco Franco led the rebellious army Nationalists against Spain's government. Hitler and Mussolini supported the revolution. The Spanish Civil War divided the world into those who supported Nazism and Fascism, and those who were against it.

Hitler and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain held several meetings to restore peace. They agreed that if Hitler took Czechoslovakia, he would not try to acquire more territory. Hitler defiantly broke his promise by invading Poland 11 months later, on September 1, 1939. Germany's blitzkrieg (lightning war) quickly overcame the large, but poorly equipped Polish Army. The blitzkrieg relied on speed and surprise. It was carried out flawlessly. Britain and France pledged their support for the Allied cause, but stood by while Hitler swallowed Poland. Journalists dubbed this the Phony War.

German forces then conquered Denmark and Norway, seizing vital ports. Following these invasions, Chamberlain resigned. He was replaced by Winston Churchill on May 10, 1940. Germany, on the same day, created another blitzkrieg, immediately taking Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands. The French hoped to hold off the aggressive Germans by use of the Maginot Line, a strip of defense along the French-German border. It proved futile, however, as the Germans simply proceeded around it and into France. The blitzkrieg once again made its appearance, this time beginning on June 5. It proved effective once more. The French signed an armistice on June 22. France had fallen.

In a massive air war, the Luftwaffe, the German air force, began to mount assaults on British RAF (Royal Air Force) stations. By September 1940, Germany thought it had destroyed the RAF, so it proceeded to bomb London. This series of attacks on Britain's capital was known as the Blitz. Great Britain remained great, however, and survived Germany's most destructive efforts. Germany halted its air efforts in May 1941.

Meanwhile, British forces in North Africa were fighting to repel the invading Italians. Britain managed to keep Italy out of Egypt and pushed them back to Libya. In the beginning of 1941, the Afrika Korps, led by General Erwin Rommel, was sent to help the Italian forces. Rommel's crafty methods eventually earned him the famed moniker, "The Desert Fox." Britain held on. In May of 1941, Britain had regained control of northern Africa.

In March and April of 1941, the Germans quickly captured Yugoslavia and Greece. When British soldiers retreated to the island of Crete, Germany orchestrated the first ever airborne invasion, dropping thousands of paratroopers who quickly took the island. These conquests were an error on Hitler's part, however. Hitler had been planning to invade the Soviet Union for some time. But, with the delays, he would now have to fight an extended, bitter winter war.

Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union, began on June 22, 1941. The Soviets soon suffered hundreds of thousands of casualties. The invasion went well for the Germans. This lasted briefly however. Instead of taking Moscow, Hitler opted for a dual-flank approach, sending some forces north to Leningrad, and some south towards the Black Sea. Meanwhile, the harsh weather began. October rains caught the Germans in mud. In early December, as German troops began to march into Moscow, winter began. Temperatures fell to -40º. The German advance stopped as abruptly as it began.

Germany's battleships struggled to cut off Allied sea supply routes. But British task forces managed to destroy the bulk of Germany's battleship fleet. The largest such attack was against the German Navy's pride and joy, the Bismarck. A fleet of British warships surrounded and sank the Bismarck in May of 1941. However, the Germans still had a trick up their collective sleeve: the U-Boat. For two years, U-Boats sank every Allied supply ship they could find. But long-range torpedo bombers, warship escorts of supply ships, and the new Allied technology of sonar curbed the threat of the dreaded Unterseeboote.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt hoped to win the war by supplying Allied nations with the weapons they needed, rather than sending the United States into war. The Lend-Lease Act gave 38 nations about $50 billion in U.S. aid.

Japan, stuck in China, decided to cut off vital Chinese supply lines from Southeast Asia. Japan entered and controlled northern Indochina. The U.S. responded by cutting Japan's supply of American goods. Japan wanted to return to its expansion plans, so it turned on the one force that could stop it: the United States Navy. On December 7, 1941, a Japanese task force attacked the Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, in Hawaii. They sank four battleships, and destroyed nearly 20 aircraft. The next day, the U.S., Canada, and Great Britain declared war on Japan.

The Soviets, in December 1941, recovered and pushed the Germans back 100 miles outside of Moscow. In Spring 1942, the Germans marched towards oil reserves in the Caucasus. Hitler ordered the capture of Stalingrad. A five-month battle ensued. The Soviets, in a counter-attack, captured and killed 300,000 German soldiers, stopping Germany's eastward march.

In 1941, Allied defeats stopped in Europe. In eastern Europe the Soviets prevented the German advance in eastern Europe. Soviets defeated the Germans in a battle at Stalingrad in 1943. The allies were soon on a roll. They won battles in Africa and forced Italy to surrender in 1943. In 1944, the Allies prepared for an invasion in northern France.

Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met together in 1943 in Teheran, Iran to discuss the strategy and plans behind the invasion. They talked to each other about a British and American large-scale attack, called Operation Overlord, on the beach of Normandy along the northern coast of France. This attack was to be known as the D-Day Invasion. It will have been the largest seaborne invasion in history. Hitler laughed and said his forces could resist any attack on the coast. The invasion would deploy Allied soldiers ashore on five beaches under the code names of Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword. The Germans were not sure what beach the Allies were going to attack so they built a chain of fortifications along the coast called the Atlantic wall. Hitler left General Rommel in charge to strengthen there defenses. Rommel put up barbed wire, he mined the water, and concentrated his troops near the Calais, the narrowest part of the English Channel. On June 6th, 2,700 Allied ships carrying 176,00 soldiers led by General Dwight Eisenhower crossed the English channel. Paratroops were dropped off behind enemy lines to capture bridges and railroad tracks. D-Day caught the Germans by surprise. Germans fought fiercely, but did not win the battle. The Allies built a temporary harbor, to receive supplies, and a pipeline across the British Channel for oil. Near the end of June, about a million troops had accumulated in France.

The Allies advanced slowly in the beginning. The Americans fought and capture Cherbourg on June 27, and the British and Canadian forces fought and captured Caen on July 18. The Allied forces had finally reached open country.

On July 25, 1944 bombers blasted a hole in the German front near St-Lo. Lieutenant General George Patton plowed through the gap and exterminated the Germans from northwest France. Patton ordered his army toward Paris. On August 19, 1944, Parisians heard the news and rose up against the German troops occupying Paris. The German troops in Paris were ordered by Hitler to destroy Paris, but they delayed and the Allies reached Paris on August 25th to liberate France. Slowly, the Allied forces moved toward Germany. The German Generals knew they were beat and tried to tell Hitler, but he brought together his remaining forces for one last attack at the Ardennes Forest (Belgium & Luxembourg). He won this Battle of the Bulge, however, in two weeks, the Americans stopped the German advance near the Meuse River (Belgium).

Meanwhile, the Soviets had slowly pushed back the Germans after the Battle at Stalingrad. The Soviets were producing and importing war supplies from Britain and America, preparing for another offensive by the Germans at Kursk. The Soviet forces waited for them with tanks, mines, anti-tank guns and aircraft; completely obliterating the oncoming German troops and tanks. The rest of the 3,000 German tanks were ordered to retreat during the battle. The Soviet forces, then, moved toward Leningrad. They defeated the Germans there and move onward to Poland. When they reach the outskirts of Warsaw, Stalin refused to come to Polish aid resulting in a German onslaught of 200,000 Polish soldiers. Afterwards, the Soviets entered in and destroyed the Germans in 1945. Another series of Soviet troops began to move towards Hungary crushing all German forces in their path. Soviet troops reached Budapest and drove the German forces out in February of 1945. After their strong advance, the Soviets had occupied almost all of eastern Europe.

The Allies began their final assault in 1945. Soviet forces were advancing from the East to Berlin, British and Canadian forces came from the North, and American and French forces neared central Germany. In all, the Allies had almost surrounded the Germans. Prior to closing in on the Germans, those Allies passing through previously occupied areas were terrified at the sights at the concentration camps.

Hitler committed suicide before the Allied forces took Berlin. On May 7, 1945, Colonel General Alfred Doenitz, Hitler's replacement, signed a declaration of unconditional surrender, ending the war in Europe.

In the Pacific

The war with the Japanese was a personal vendetta for the U.S., after Japan bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Japan won several early victories including: taking over Hong Kong, Guam, and Wake Island, defeating the British in Singapore, the Battle of the Java Sea, and the conquest of the Philippines. MacArthur's troops were ordered to Australia after leaving the Philippines in March 1942. On April 9, about 75,000 exhausted troops on Bataan surrendered to the Japanese. Most of them were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps, but most of them died. This march was called the Bataan Death March. After the Philippines were captured, Japan moved toward India and Australia.

In 1942, there were 3 events that helped turn the tide on the Japanese. One of them was the Doolittle raid in which 16 B-52 bombers surprised Tokyo with minor bombing. The 2nd event was the Battle of the Coral Sea which halted the Japanese attack on Port Moresby. The 3rd event was the Battle of Midway, in which Japan sent a large fleet to capture one of the Hawaiian islands, but the Americans intercepted the plan and prepared for a surprise attack. The battle began on June 4, 1942 when the Japanese bombed the island of Midway. Old U.S. bombers launched bombers on Japanese warships, but most of them were shot down. Next, American dive bombers dropped down on Japanese aircraft carriers while they were refueling. The e Japanese had lost 4 aircraft carriers and at least 200 planes along with many skilled pilots. Japan had only sunk 1 U.S. aircraft carrier and shot down 150 planes. The Battle of Midway was a clear victory for the Allies.

Meanwhile, the Allies battled to regain most of the islands in the Pacific. In 1942, MacArthur attacked New Guinea with a series of brilliant operations, but fighting continued until 1944. On August 7, 1942, marines invaded Guadalcanal. This attack caught the Japanese by surprise, but they fought strong. This battle proved to be one of the most vicious campaigns in WWII. By February 1943, Japan left Guadalcanal. In 1943, Allied military leaders canceled the invasion of Rabaul; instead, they bombed it. After beating back the Japanese, the Allies finally liberated the Philippines in 1944. Superiority in air and sea combat enabled the Allies to move onto Japan itself.

Allied forces first attack Iwo Jima. The marines landed on February 19, 1945. The marines successfully won the battle, but with a struggle. Okinawa was the next stop. Japan sent kamikazes to attack the marine landing force, but they still defeated Japan at Okinawa.

On August 6, 1945 due their refusal to give into the US's ultimatum, the B-29 American bomber, the Enola Gay, dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Three days later, America dropped another atomic bomb on Nagasaki, after Japanese leaders failed to respond to the first bombing. On September 2, 1945, Japan finally gave in and signed a statement of surrender ending WWII.

 WORLD WAR II

1941-1945

Abrahams, Joseph D.

 

Adams, Charles Neal

 

Adams, Clyde

 

Alfred, Duffie

 

Alfred, Robert

 

Allen, Murray M.

 

Anderson, Odell

 

Anthony, Johnny D.

 

Adaway, Napoleon B.

 

Bacon, O'neal

 

Barnett, James

 USN

Barnett, Marlon Wayne

USA

Bass, James

 

Bass, John

 

Bean, Ira S.

 

Bean, Jack

 

Bean, Jefferson

USA

Bean, John T.

 

Bean, Johnny

USA

Bean, Lynn

 

Bean, Matt

 

Bean, Robert

 

Berry, Charles H.

 

Berry, Woodrow H., Sr.

USA

Beatty, Mitchell

 

Bergstresser, David

USA

Bendo, George R.

 

Bilbo, Harry B.

 

Biscamp, Robert

 

BISCAMP, Wm. E.

 

Boley, Cecil B.

 

Boodry, Bertie H.

 

Boodry, Theodore

 

Booker, C. H., Sr.

 

Booker, Marvin J.

 

Booker, Thomas

 

Boughan, James F.

 

Bragg, J. T.

 

Bragg, Jeay

 

Brinson, Robert M., Jr.

 

Brooks, Jesse

 

Brown, Albie M.

 

Brown, Charles A.

 

Brown, Murry E.

USA

Buckmaster, Cecil

 

Burnaman, Joseph William

 

Butaud, James W.

 

Byerly, Warren J.

USA

Byerly, Willie Clara

 

Cade, Fred

 

Claton, Harvey

 USA

Claton, Roy

Texas

Calhoun, Otis

 

Calhoun, Theo

 

Calhoun, Tom

 

Calhoun, Virgil

 

Campbell, W. L.

 

Canty, Billy

 

Caples, Cecil E.

 

Carroll, Rufus F.

 

Carter, Marion F.

 

Cash, G. E.

 

Caswell, Cecil

 

Cheatwood, Alton

 

Choate, Danny M.

 

Calillier, Joseph

 

Clanton, Harvey

 

Clanton, Roy

 

Clare, James M.

 

Clark, Basil M.

 

Clark, Charles

 

Clark, E. L. (Punk)

 

Clark, Johnnie

 

Cochran, Jesse

 

Cochran, Joseph A.

 

Cofty, Vernon

 

Coker, Therman

 

Collins, Percy

USA

Collins, Pete

 

Cole, William H.

 

Coleman, Lloyd

 

Coleman , Lloyd

 

Coleman, Lloyd E.

 

Cooper, Dewayne

 

Cornes, W. H.

 

Cosper, James

USN

Cottingham, Herbert James

 

Cottonjim, Herbert

 

Cox, William

 

Craig, Gilbert

 

Cunningham, William H.

 

Dainwood, John A., Jr.

 

Daniel, George Amos

 

Daniel, Leland

 

Daniels, R. R.

 

Davis, A. R.

 

Davis, Armand R.

 

Davis, Avril

 

Davis, Eddice

 

Davis, H. L.

 

Davis, Hillary James

 

Davis, Jack

 

Davis, Leland

 

Davis, Luther

 

Davis, M. M.

 

Davis, R. C.

 

Davis, Roy Tilman

 

Davis, Seborn E.

 

Davis, Tilmon

 

Davison, H. A.

 

Day, Cecil

 

Day, Wilson

 

Dean, David Leon

 

Dean, Leon

 

Dean, Roy

 

Dillinger, Lander

 

Dennard, J. O.

 

Derrough , Joe

 

Derrough, Luther

 

Dickerson, Cecil

 

Dickerson, Cecil T.

 

Dickerson, I. B.

 

Dickerson, W. L.

 

Dry, Edgar

USA

Eddlemon, Mollie

 

Ener, W. L.

 

Erwin, Billie Harod

 

Erwin, Bobbie D.

 

Erwin, Cecil J.

 

Erwin, D. B., Jr.

 

Erwin, Fred

 

Erwin, James D.

 

Evans, J. D.

 

Ervin, Carrenson

USA

Farmer, Raymond

 

Fairchild, Fuller

 

Fairchild, James

 

Ferguson, R. C.

 

Ferguson, Sammy

 

Fillyaw, Lee Roy

 

Flanigan, Richard

 

Fomby, Alvin

 

Ford, Gus

 

Forse, J. B., Jr.

 

Fortenberry, Walter

 

Fowler, Jesse

 

Frank, Robert W.

USMC

Freeman, O. B.

 

Freeman, Robert

USA

Flurry, Elmer

 

Freeman, Robert L.

 

Fuller, Bill

 

Fuller, Joe Allen

 

Garner, Davis L.

 

Gasaway, Buddy

 

Gaudet, Howard

 

Gee, John Cleveland

 

Gee, Richard M.

 

Gee, thomas

 

Gerald, C. M.

 

Gibson, James

 

Gibson, Thomas

 

Gibson, Warren

 

Gilchrist, T. L. Winston

 

Gill, John Herman

 

Gillard, Jesse

 

Gilley, Louise Houguson

 

Gilley, Polk

 

Glenn, Elisha

USA

Goddard, James Albert

 

Goodwin, Phillip A.

 

Gordon, H. G.

 

Graw, John

 

Gray, D. S.

 

GRAY, Wm. J.

 

Gregory, Irvin

 

Griffin, Jean

 

Griffin, Joe

 

Griggs, John A.

 

Griggith, Geo. T.

 

Griner, James

 

Gunter, Edwin

 

Gunter, B. J.

 

Gunter, Charles

 

Gunter, Sutton

 

Gunter, Tulia

 

Gunter, W. H.

 

Hale, Marvin

 

Hall, Alice

 

Hall, Billy

 

Hall, Guy

 

Hall, John

 

Hall, Leslie

 

Hall, Marvin F.

 

Hall, Royce Herman

USNCB

Hall, W. H., Jr.

 

Hall (Samford) , Willie B.

 

Hamilton, John F.

 

Hamilton, Ray

 

Harrell, Dan

 

Harris, Hoy

 

Hatch, Marion Lee

 

Hawthorne, Simon

 

Hendricks, Donald

 

Hennigan, Howard F.

USA

Henry, J. B.

 

Henshaw, Earl F.

 

Henson, James Kay

 

Herrin, Charlie

 

Herrin, Lavelle

 

Herrin, Luther

 

Herrin, Mason

 

Herrin, Johnnie

 

Herrin, Mason H.

 

Hile, Hubert

 

Hill, James Olen

 

Hines, R. M.

 

Hobbs, R. L. (Kitty)

 

Holmes, Colones B.

 

Holt, Willard

 

Hooks, Herman

 

Hooks, Joe Allen

 

Hooks, Nana Day

 

Hooks, Oneal

 

Hooks, Ray

 

Horace, Grover C.

USA

Hougensen, Lucille

 

Huffman, Hebert

 

Huffman, Tom Vernon

 

Hughes, Benjamin Franklin

 

Hughes, Bill

 

Hughes, E. P., Jr.

 

Hughes, Joseph W.

 

Hughes, Victor Hugh

 

Hughes, William Amos

 

Hutson, Joseph A.

 

Humphrey, Burton

 

Humphrey, Robbie

 

Hunter, J. C.

USA

Hurst, Nathan Irvin (Johnny)

USN-CG

Huskey, Roland C.

USA

Inman, Alvie M.

 

Inman, Herman M.

 

Inman, James Lafe

 

Irby, R. L.

 

Irvin, J. B.

USA

Irvin, Tad B.

 USA

Irvine, Wilbert H.

 

Irvine, J. B.

USAAF

Issac, L. C.

USA

Jackson, Hercules

USA

Jackson, Lester

 

Jenkins, Lester Roy

USN 

Jetton, Martin

 

Johnson, F. C.

 

Johnson, Frederick C.

 

Jones, Ben

 

Jones, Chester

 

Jones, Clarence L.

 

Jones, Garvie

 

Jones, Harold Lloyd

 

Jones, H. T.

 

Jones, Jack

 

Jones, John Daniel, Jr.

 

Jones, Luther

USA

Jones, Kenneth

 

Jones, Pete

 

Jones, R. J.

 

Jones, Tim

 

Jones, Tom, Jr.

 

Jones, Travis

 

Jones, W. A. (Sonnu)

 

Jones, W. A. (Sonny)

 

Joyce, Willie D.

 

Kees, Minos P.

 

Kelley, Nathan Hampton

 

Kelly, Jack

 

Kellum, Grover

USA

Kennon, R. J.

 

Kent, John

 

King, Archie

 

Knight, Clarence

USN

Lane, Carl

 

Langley, J. C.

 

Langham, Odis

 

Lavine, Jasper N.

 

Lazenby, Cecil B.

 

Leach, Jesse

 

Lee, Edward J.

USA

Lee, Leighton

 

Leonard, Melvin E.

 USA

Lewis, Albertus

 

Lewis, Cato

 

Lewis, Benton

 

Lewis, Cade

 

Lewis, Oksie Gipson

 

Lewis, Troy

 

Linscomb, Earnest

 

Love, Jack

 

Low, Alex Debruel

 

Lowery, Freand, Fr.

 

Major, Joseph

 

Manchez, Randal

 

Mansfield, Richard

 

Manning, Authur Earl

USMC

Marshall, Alvin

 

Marshall, W. M

 

Martin, Aubrey

 

Martin, Lt. Autry

 

Martin, Bill

 

Marze, E. L.

 

Massa, Thomas J.

 

Matthews, Abbie Rushin

USA

Matthews, L. C.

 

Mattox, Dooney

 

Mattox, Jesse, Sr.

 

Mattox, Joe B.

 

Mattox, Woodrow

 

McBride, Arnold

 

McBride, Dredson

USN

McBride, Fred

 

McBride, Joseph

USA

McBride, Leondrus

 USA

McBride, Ulysses

USN

McCoy, Wagner

USA

McDaniel, Sim Albert

 

McDonald, Arnold

 

McGraw, James D., Sr.

 

McGraw, Wallis

 

McGraw, Willie Dennis

 

McKinzey, J. L.

 

McMahon, Claude W.

USA

McMahon, J. C.

 

McNeil, James C.

 

Meadown, Betty Rose

 

Meadows, Wayne

 

Medley, Ramsey

 

Miller, Arch A. Jr.

 

Miller, Arthur

 

Miller, Clinton

 

Miller, Dell

 

Miller, Eugene

 

Miller, Harris

 

Miller, Huey R.

 

Miller, James

 

Miller, Jack

 

Miller, Lutcher

 

Miller, Wayne

 

Milligan, Jack

 

Mitchell, William

 

Mitschke, Robert A.

 

Moore, James

 

Morris, Hilliard

 

Morris, John C.

USA

Morris, O. V.

USA

Mullins, Bert

 

Mullins, George

 

Mullins, Tom

 

Nash, Aubrey Cody

 

Nash, George

 

Nash, P. R.

 

Navarre, Charles E.

 

Norsworthy, James

 

O'Brien, Jeremiah

 

Odom, Billy

 

Odom, Thomas T.

 

Ohman, August

 

Owens, Everett

 

Oxley, Willard

 

Ozan, George C.

 

Ozment, Perry

 

Partin, George E.

 

Patterson, Pat

 

Peacock, Peroy

 

Pence, James

 

Pence, Haward

 

Pence, Sam

 

Perego, Edgar A.

USA

Perego, Morris

 

Perego, Orean P.

 

Perry, Johnnie

 

Petego, Clarence

 

Peters, Billy Frank

 

Peveto, Roland Lee

 

Phelps, Clarence A

 

Phelps, Ray

 

Phelps, Sam

 

Pineda, Joseph

 

Ponder, George

 

Powell, David B.

 

Powell, George C.

 

Powell, Samuel D.

USA

Prewitt, T.J.

 

Pryor, Nell

 

Riley, James C.

 

Ramsey, Charles

 

Ramsey, Edward

 

Ramsey, John C.

 

Ratcliff, John L.

 

Rawls, Dan

USA

Ray, William

USN

Roser, Bevis

 

Russell, Warren C.

 

Skelton, John Odis

 

Samuel, Babe Ruth

USA

Samuel, Cunie

USN

Samuel, K. C.

USA

Sheffield, Monroe

 

Siau, Fred L.

 

Siau, Wilburn Q.

 

Simmons, Ben

 

Simmons, Don C.

USA

Simmons, J. T., Jr.

 

Simmons, Wm. L

USA

Simmons, Mark, Jr.

 

Sims, Bonnie Lee

 

Smith, Johnnie N.

USA

Smith, Max L.

 

Smith, Preston

 

Smith, Roy J.

 

Singleton, Robert

 

Staley, Paul

 

Strawther, Jess E.

 

Stovall, John M.

 

Swatte, Leon M.

 

Sylvester, Garfield

USA

Thompson, Elmer

USA

Tippett, Rudolph

 

Tippett, William

 

Tomplait, Donald

 

Townsend, John M.

 

Twine, Ardest

 

Underwood, William C., Sr.

 

Vinson, C. D.

USA

Wagner, McCoy

USA

Walton, William

USA

Watson, Perry L.

 

Watson, Jesse Roland

 

Webster, Lloyd

 

West, Donald

 

West, George

 

West, James

 

West, Owen B.

 

West, Suddeth

 

Whitman, Bennie

 

Williams, Alton

 

Williams, Clark

USA

Williams, James P.

USA

Williams, Jim

 

Williams, Lloyd

USA

Williams, William H.

USA

Wilson, Thomas J.

 

Young, Gerald N.

USA

Young, M. C.

USA

Zachry, Troy Benjamin

 

 

Korean War

1950-1953

The Korean War was the result of the division of Korea. Despite a long history of independence, Korea was forcibly annexed by Japan in 1910, which held control until the end of World War II. On August 10, 1945 in response to the occupation of northern Korea by the U.S.S.R., the United States decided to occupy the southern half of Korea. The U.S. government did so out of fear that the U.S.S.R., which joined the fight against Japan in northern Korea a week earlier, would take control of the entire Korean Peninsula. American planners chose to divide Korea at the 38th parallel because it would keep the capital city, Seoul, in the American-occupied southern zone; the U.S.S.R. acquiesced to the division, with no official comment.

The U.S.S.R. installed a Communist government in North Korea in September 1948. The new government promoted and supported a rebellion in South Korea, also known as the Republic of Korea (ROK), designed to topple the U.S.-backed government and gain total control of Korea. When two years passed and the grass roots rebellion did not produce the desired result, the northern government turned its attention to planning an all out invasion of South Korea.

At the beginning of 1950, North Korea deployed more than 70% of its forces along the 38th parallel. By mid-1950, the Korean Peoples Army (KPA) had between 150,000 and 200,000 combat-ready troops. They were organized into ten infantry divisions, one tank division with 280 tanks, and one air force division with 210 fighter planes. The ill-equipped South Koreans had an army of less than 100,000 inexperienced men that lacked tanks, heavy artillery and combat airplanes. They also had a coast guard of 4,000 men and a police force of 45,000 men.

On Sunday, June 25, 1950, the North Korean forces began their attacks across the 38th parallel, which divided North from South Korea. On June 26, the United States, along with other members of the United Nations, came to the aid of South Korea. President Harry S. Truman ordered the use of United States planes and naval vessels against North Korean forces; on June 30, U. S. ground troops were dispatched. The United States asked the United Nations Security Council to intervene, fearing that inaction in Korea would be interpreted as acceptance of communist aggression elsewhere in the world. When the Soviets walked out of the emergency session of the UN Security Council, the UN voted 9-0 to send troops to South Korea. The UN, in accordance with its Charter, engaged in its first collective action by establishing the United Nations Command (UNC), under which 16 member nations sent troops and assistance to South Korea. At the request of the UN Security Council, the United States as the largest contributing country, led this international effort. President Truman then ordered General Douglas MacArthur to head the UN forces.

Three days after their attack began, North Korea captured the South Korea's capital city of Seoul and continued south with little resistance. By August 4, North Korea's army captured most of South Korea. The United Nations and South Korean forces retreated to the port city of Pusan. Here they set up what became known as the Pusan Perimeter. Some of the heaviest fighting took place here during late August/early September with the outnumbered KPA sending wave after wave of troops in an attempt to break the perimeter setup by the joint forces.

General MacArthur soon realized that the North Korean forces were vulnerable to an amphibious attack and ordered a landing at Inch'on. This port city on the Yellow Sea was 25 km southwest of Seoul and would allow the UN forces to cut the North Korean road and rail supply lines. The attack on Inch'on took place on September 15, 1950, but without an appropriate landing zone, namely beaches, the landing forces used the available harbor and wharf facilities. The landing met with minimal resistance and the UN forces easily pushed inland. As expected, the invasion forces were able to cut the supply lines of the North Korean Army and the Communist soldiers fled up the peninsula, pursued by UN forces. By September 25 the North Korean Army, with their lines of communications severed and their escape routes imperiled, stopped fighting and stampeded in panic towards the 38th parallel.

There was a brief hesitation at the border between North and South Korea, the 38th parallel. With the South Korean Army already North of the 38th parallel, elements of the Eighth Army crossed into North Korea on October 9. At the same time the X Corps embarked at Inch'on for sea movement to Wonsan. On October 19, the North Korean capital of Pyongyang was captured and by October 28, the South Korean troops had reached the Yalu River. In hopes of ending operations before the onset of winter, MacArthur ordered an advance to the northern Korean border with China at the Yalu River on October 24. Two days later, UN forces made their first contact with the Chinese Communist forces in Korea. China had entered the war.

Over the course of the next month, reports from the front indicating Chinese resistance made their way to MacArthur but were discounted as only volunteers helping the KPA. In reality, a force of over 300,000 Chinese combat forces entered Korea undetected.

On November 24, UN forces began the "Home Before Christmas" offensive. Its objective was the destruction of the North Korean regime and the unification of Korea. Victory seemed close when the situation changed drastically. On November 25 the Chinese Communist forces attacked the Eighth Army in northeast Korea. When word of this attack reached MacArthur, he notified Washington, "We have an entirely new war".

On November 30, President Truman threatened to use the Atomic Bomb against the Chinese, but this did not deter them. From then until the end of the year, the North Korean Army, along with the Chinese forces, pushed the UN presence out of North Korea.

This push continued south in January 1951 and the North Korean Army again captured the South Korean capital of Seoul on January 4. In mid-January, the fighting diminished as the aggressor forces retreated to replenish supplies. By the end of January, the UN forces began a new attack against the Communist forces to push them back to the 38th parallel and retake Seoul.

On March 18, the UN forces regained control of Seoul. In the days that followed, the Eighth Army also regained much of the territory up to the 38th parallel. Knowing this, President Truman began to draw up an announcement that the UN forces were willing to begin discussions with the Chinese and North Koreans to conclude the hostilities. MacArthur was told of this and made his own offer to the enemy without consent from Washington or the UN.

President Truman never did make his offer and began seriously considering the removal of MacArthur based on what he perceived as insubordination by MacArthur. Before he could make his final decision, MacArthur openly disagreed and challenged Truman's national policy on the Korean Conflict. Truman recalled MacArthur on April 11 and named General Matthew B. Ridgeway to lead the UN forces. Prior to this appointment, General Ridgeway was in command of the Eighth Army.

Days after his appointment General Ridgeway was faced with a new offensive by the KPA/Chinese forces aimed at Seoul. The offensive was repelled just a few miles north of Seoul. The Communist forces staged another offensive on May 15 that was also repelled. The UN forces then staged a counter offensive and pushed the Communists back over the 38th parallel. For the next month, the fighting was limited to patrols and local clashes.

On June 23, the Soviet representative to the United Nations, Jacob Malik, proposed that truce talks begin. Both sides agreed and the first truce talks began in Kaesong on July 10.

From this point through April 1952, assaults by both sides occurred but none penetrated the other's defense and a stalemate occurred along the 38th parallel. The truce negotiations were also at an impasse. The talks broke down in August only to resume on October 25 in Panmunjom. The main hitch during the talks was the repatriation of the Prisoners of War (POWs) held by both sides.

In May 1952, a United Nations Command POW camp commander was captured and was held by the prisoners until the acting commander signed a statement, which admitted to the unjust treatment of the prisoners held by UN forces. Although this had great propaganda value for the North, the UN negotiators never changed their stance on repatriation of the POWs.

The United States elected a new president, Dwight D. Eisenhower, in its November elections based partly on his stand regarding Korea. In his campaigning he pledged to "...go to Korea" to attempt a peaceful resolution.

The final battles for Old Baldy, Eerie and Pork Chop Hill took place from late March to mid-April 1953. Throughout, truce negotiations continued and sick and wounded POWs were exchanged in late April.

On June 18, 1953 the Communists again broke off negotiations after the South Korean Army released 27,000 POWs who did not wish to be repatriated to the North Korea.

On July 10, the negotiations resumed after the UN assured the North Koreans that the Republic of Korea would abide by the terms of the cease-fire. Both parties signed the cease-fire agreement on July 27; the fighting ended 12 hours later.

This truce agreement created a demilitarized zone 2 kilometers wide on either side of the 38th parallel. This agreement is still in place today.

Abshire, Robert J., Sr.

USA

Adams, Lloyd Edwin

USA

Beard, Johnny

 

Booker, Robert T. (Bobbie)

 

Boughner, Leonald

 

Curl, Rubin, Jr.

 

Darden, Valson

 

Gordon, Woodrow

 

Greer, Earl R.

 

Hall, Arthur M.

 

Holmes, Roger

 

Huffman, Earl D.

 

Huffman, Horace

 

Jennings, Harold D.

 

Johnson, Burnard

USA

Jones, Harold

 

Landrum, Tony E.

 

Lynch, Troy

 

McAdams, James D.

 

McBride, Kent

 

Nelson, Roy Lee

USA

Newby, Samuel J.

 

Owens, Everett William

USN

Pletz, Frederick T.

 

Richardson, Milton

 

Roberts, Joseph E.

 

Sells, Isaiah C.

 

Shaw, Elbert E.

 

Simmons, Herman

 

Smith, James Alton

 

Teal, David George

USA

Thomas, Paul Eugene

USA

Thompson, Chester

 

Thompson, Elmer

USA

Tomlin, Billy

 

Tucker, Thomas J.

USA

Wagner, Henry

USA

West, Claude

 

 

Vietnam

The Vietnam War was a long, bloody conflict that ended with the United States' first major military upset. It had huge ramifications, nationally and globally.

The French had occupied Indochina since the 1800s. At the First Indochinese War, which lasted from the late 1940s to the mid 1950s, Communist forces defeated American-aided French troops in Vietnam. President Eisenhower, reacting to the Communist show of might, tried to establish an anti-Communist government just south of the 17th parallel. A pro-American named Ngo Dinh Diem came to power. Since he resisted the Communist movement's insurgent tendencies, he was supported by the United States Government. Diem was also supported by Catholics in Vietnam. However, the large non-Christian population of Vietnam rebelled at Diem's authoritarian manner. The U.S. began to send large amounts of military aid to Diem's regime. This was done under the reasoning that force was needed to protect South Vietnam, to halt the spread of Chinese Communism, and to keep Diem in power.

By this time, anti-Diem groups had banded together to form the Viet Cong, a group against which the U.S. centered a major strategic policy program. The Viet Cong, by 1960, had evolved into the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLFSV.) Since guerrilla warfare, propaganda, and recruiting were the Viet Cong's tactics, American strategists devised "strategic hamlets," relocation sites designed to keep Vietnamese isolated from Viet Cong influence. However, this plan backfired as the relocated Vietnamese became disgruntled, rebelled from the hamlets, and eventually joined the Viet Cong in droves.

With this, American military presence in the region increased dramatically. At the start of Kennedy's presidency, about 2,000 American troops were in Vietnam, compared to upwards of 15,000 by 1963. Simultaneously, more military advisors, training, and equipment were being provided to Diem's Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN.)

Diem was quickly becoming a strain on American and Vietnamese strategy. So when a group of top ARVN officers plotted to overthrow him, the U.S. gave covert assistance. On November 1, 1963, Diem and his brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu, were killed in the coup.

Weeks later, President Kennedy was assassinated, leaving the formidable matter in the hands of his successor, Lyndon B. Johnson. In 1964, two U.S. Navy vessels were allegedly attacked by North Vietnamese boats in the Gulf of Tonkin. In retaliation, (though critics claim it was to gain political support) the President ordered air strikes against North Vietnam. Johnson also gained support in Congress, which on August 7, 1964, passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, essentially granting the President limitless military power.

The air strikes increased, becoming more and more frequent, and often more deadly. Bombers used napalm, a potent jellied form of gasoline that burns long and is difficult to extinguish. Because of the nature of guerrilla warfare, it was difficult to distinguish between military and civilian targets, so both were attacked. To further the strategy of peasant isolation from Viet Cong influence, a tactic of destroying jungle and ground cover was used. Defoliant chemicals like Agent Orange were used to kill trees and thick brush, and napalm bombings were implemented to clear the countryside, causing civilians to flee to cities under U.S. and ARVN protection.

By the mid- to late 1960s, the Viet Cong was receiving generous quantities of aid from China and the Soviet Union. In 1968, they staged the Tet Offensive. A huge, well-orchestrated attack was mounted at about 120 strategic targets, including a U.S. Air Force station, 36 provincial capitals, and even the American embassy in South Vietnam's capital of Saigon. The Viet Cong was repelled, suffering heavy losses, but they had made their point: The Viet Cong was able to dominate all of Vietnam, if the U.S. was taken out of the equation.

To many, the war was becoming unpopular in the United States. Massive protests and peace rallies were beginning to take place, many at major universities and colleges. The Johnson was losing its credibility with a great deal of Americans.

The military, in late 1967-early 1968, requested 100,000 more U.S. troops, with the possibility of more requests. President Johnson refused, and also cut back bombing runs on North Vietnamese targets. Johnson then, in March of 1968, announced that he would not run for reelection. Richard Nixon won the presidential election in 1968.

Nixon was able to start peace negotiations, which briefly satisfied the strong appetite for peace felt by millions. The talks were held in Paris. The United States' and Vietnam's internal problems, however, soon dominated the talks, which lasted until 1973. By June of 1969, the NLFSV and other rebel groups organized a Provisional Revolutionary Government, which gained the rebels a place at the bargaining table.

In the fall of 1969, Nixon's administration began to withdraw troops from Vietnam. Bombing raids, though, were intensified.

The war had immense repercussions in the United States. The immense amounts of military spending caused large budget deficits, at a time when the economy was already slowing. The problem was multiplied by a weak dollar. The Vietnam War did not necessarily cause these problems, but it certainly accelerated them. The peace movement was also growing, and it eventually reached the armed forces. Protests within the rank and file led to desertion and insubordination. Racial tensions were also evident, since white officers led large numbers of black soldiers from inner cities. Drug and alcohol abuse also contributed to morale problems.

The war was soon to shift from Vietnam to neighboring Cambodia and Laos. In a coup in March of 1970, a Communist regime took power in Cambodia. In April of the same year, President Nixon ordered an invasion of Cambodia, coupled with extensive air strikes. With the invasion of Cambodia, the North Vietnamese were forced to use more supply routes through Laos. In February of 1971, ARVN troops invaded Laos in a disastrous raid. The fighting lasted for 45 days, and killed or wounded more than half of the ARVN's force.

South Vietnam's president, Nguyen Van Thieu, continued the mistakes his predecessors had made, banning elections, stifling free speech, and giving himself more military authority.

Through 1971 and 1972, Nixon continued his Vietnamization plan, withdrawing troops, increasing air attacks, and stepping up naval bombardment. To force the Communists to accept American terms, Nixon again increased bombing, this time on North Vietnamese towns and ports. These bombing missions also repelled the beginning Communist invasion of South Vietnam.

On January 27, 1973, a cease-fire was signed in Paris by the United States, North and South Vietnam, and the Viet Cong. Two months later, the last American forces left Vietnam. Without U.S. intervention, however, the peace negotiations disintegrated, and war resumed. North Vietnam began to conquer the south. In April, President Ford asked Congress for $722 million in aid for Vietnam. However, Congress only appropriated $300 million. This money was mostly used to evacuate South Vietnamese from Communist-occupied Saigon.

The war ended on April 30, 1975, with the South Vietnamese surrender. The Communists renamed Saigon as Ho Chi Minh City. 2.7 million Americans served in the war. 58,000 of them were killed. Another 365,000 were wounded. The South Vietnamese lost upwards of one million

soldiers, while the North had between 500,000 and a million deaths. Scores of civilians were killed, and 10 million became refugees. The bombs and defoliants used in the war scarred the countryside, permanently in some cases.

Vietnam still remains a poor country, with over a million people fleeing the nation since 1975. It relies heavily on Communist aid, and has hardly any economic value.

Bean, Jeff K.

 

Bean, Jerry K.

 

Bean, Robert F., Jr.

 

Claude, James W.

USA

Conley, Ricky

USA

Elliott, Kenneth Wayne

USN

Freeman, Ernest

USA

Glenn, Clarence

USA

Gray, Brent Mason

USAF

Griffin, Philip Keith

USN

Gould, Arthur Gene

 

Hall, James B.

USN

Hall, Royce Herman, Jr.

USN

Nelson, Sylvester, Jr.

 

Perry, Wilton

 

Pierce, LeRoy Sr.

USA

Stroud, Roy A.

USA

Tanton, Jarvie

USA

Ward, Robert Earl

USA

Williams, Stephen S.

 

Wright, Lewis A.

USA

Y'Barbo, Marshall "Pete"

 

Pletz, Frederick T.

 

 

Desert Storm

Saddam Hussein thought he could reconstitute Iraq by invading Kuwait. That's exactly what he did. On August 2, 1990 Iraqi military forces invaded Kuwait by the orders of Saddam Hussein. The (UN) United Nations acted quickly. President George Bush forged a military coalition which consisted of Argentina, Bahrain, Australia, Canada, Belgium, Bangladesh, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Kuwait, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Poland, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Korea, Spain, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Untied Kingdom, and the United States of America. The United States assembled 500,000 soldiers, 1,800 aircraft, 100 ships. The UN ordered Saddam Hussein to leave Kuwait and restore Kuwaiti government by January 15, 1991 or the coalition would use any means necessary to force the Iraqis from Kuwait, but he refused. So the UN's first objective was to gain control of the air. On January 16 a combined assault of cruise missiles and bombing sorties where discharged upon Iraqi command centers, airbases, and missile launchers to try and gain control of the air. Iraq retaliated by launching scud missiles against cities in Israel and Saudi Arabia. By January 23 a week later of the opening assault the coalition achieved air control another warning was issued to Saddam Hussein leave Kuwait by February 23 or risk a land battle. The coalition prepared for the assault. General Norman Schwarzkopf orchestrated a extensive western deployment on the Arabian border to totally outflank Iraqi positions. February 23 came and went. Then on February 24 the primary assault began . It was so fierce that it would only last 100 hours. Armored units hastily penetrated Iraq and moved towards Kuwait. As the other armored units pushed from the south the Iraqi soldiers where abruptly surrounded and fled in confusion. On February 27 president George Bush announced a cease-fire. The United States suffered 148 killed in action, 407 wounded, 121 killed in nonhostile actions and 15 of the casualties where women . On June 1991 an estimation of Iraqi's killed was 100,000, 300,000 wounded, 150,000 deserted and 60,000 taken prisoner. The war cost Arab States $620 billion. The United States, Great Britain, and France received $84 billion for army expenses, but they spent $51 billion on support for the coalition soldiers. The damage estimated to the oil fields, factories, roads, and other buildings was $160 billion in Kuwait and $190 billion in Iraq.

Claude, James W.

USA

Chrisjohn, Joseph Roger

 USMC

William S. (Steven) Cutrer 

USMC

Davis, R. Paul

USMC

Hurst, James Edward

USMC