Newton County

Veterans of the Armed Service


 Indian Wars

Burke, John R.

Ford, David

Hoger, John M

Lewis, Samuel S.

Lindsey, Elijah

Robinson, William D.

Rogers, Irvin

Woods, John


American Revolution


Holmes, Thomas C.

Williams, Stephen


War Of 1812

Hughes, Robert

Robinson, W. D.

Smith, William

Williams, Stephen


Texas Revolution


Albright, A. F.

Davis, Pleasant B

Irvin, Josephus Somerville

Lewis, John T.

Lewis, Martin B.

Lewis, Samuel S.

Lewis, William McFarland

McFarland, Thomas Stuart

McMahon, William Sr.

Stephenson, Ira

Tanner, Thomas

West, Jefferson

Wilkinson, John

Williams, Stephen & 3 Sons


Mexican War


Droddy, W. A.

Robinson, W. D.

Willis, W. C.


War Between The States


Adams, George


Adams, Hyram


Adams, Thomas F.


Albright, J. J.


Allbright, A. F.


Alley, Alphonos H.


Ashworth, Levi A.


Barrett, N. P.


Bass, Kenion Elmer


Beck, S. R.


Belk, Andrew H.


Bennington, John


Boandon, J. D.


Bonner, T. J.


Brack, Barnet


Brack, H. F.


Brack, Thoma


Brandon, J. D.


Brailsford, Joseph Robert


Burnham, Marion L.


Butler, B. F.


Byerly, Richard


Byerly, William


Carleton, James B.


Caey, H. J.


Casey, Henry J.


Chaddick, Isaac


Chance, William


Chance, William F.


Chapman, W.


Chapman, W. N.


Clark, M. M.


Cochran, Alfred


Cochran, D. C.


Cochran, Jacob


Cochran, J. L.


Collins, C. W.


Collins, W. J.


Colville, Jehu P.


Colville, John T.


Colville, Lewis H.


Davison, William


Davis, J. R.


Dehart, Able


Dehart, John


Denby , A. C.


Denby , William


Didham, Captain E. G.


Dority, J. B.


Droddy, W. A.


Dubose, Amos


Dyer, J. L.


Dyes, J. L.


Eason, J. B.


Eason, S. W.


Edgar, E. B. T.


England, Thomas


Erwin, Leroy J.


Erwin, John L.


Farnham, David H.


Ford, Harrison


Ford, John David


Ford, Thomas


Fowler, J. R.


Fowler, S. A.


Fuller, Henry


Fuller, John


Gee, George


Gibbs, Captain Walter Carr


Gilchrist, William Clarence


Gilchrist, D. R.


Green, G. W.


Grimes, Thomas


Griner, William Berry


Gray, Simeon


Gray, William A.


Hall, Jason


Hall, Q. M.


Hall, William M.


Hancock, Charles A.


Hardy, K. A. P.


Hardy, Theophilus


Hawthorne, Polk


Hawthorne, Winont


Herrin, Jack A.


Herrin, Samuel McFarland


Herrin, Steve B.


Herrington, James


Hext, R. Y


Hines, Captain M. D., Sr.


Holland, W. A.


Holmes, Charles Austin


Holmes, Claiborne


Holmes, Ferdinand Harper


Holmes, Joe


Holmes, Thomas C.


Holmes, Major Thomas C.


Holmes, Thomas H. Buck


Holmes, W. H. J.


Holt, James


Howell, J. J.


Huffman, Valentine Pierce


Hughes, Robert E.


Inman, William J.


Irvin, James Pataton


Irvin, J. G.


Irvin, J. S.


Jarrell, Henry


Jeffers, Bailos Earl


Jeffeys, J. M.


Jetter, William E.


Joiner, Edmund


Joiner, Robert


Jones, D. M.


Jones, F. C.


Keller, W. H.


Kelley, M. W.


Kelley, W. N.


Kimmey, F. D. L. (Larue)


Lancaster, C. W.


Landrum, William Henry


Lavine, William


Lee, James R.


Lee, James Richard


Lee, Jesse


Lee, John H.


Lee, William T.


Lenahan, C.


Leonard, J. W.


Leonard, Tom


Lewis, Asa S.


Lewis, George W.


Lewis, William M.


Lottie, O. L.


Lynch, E. G.


Lynch, J. C.


Lynch, John


Marshall, Curtis


Martin, Samuel Hoy


Matthews, S. H.


Mattox, J. M.


McDonald, James W.


McDonald, William S.


McLemore, John


McKinnon, Dr. A. J.


McMahon, Argalus


McMahon, Isaac Stephen


McMahon, John Wesley


McMahon, W. L.


McWilliams, Dabney


McWilliams, Jeptha


McWilliams, Pierce E.


McWilliams, William H.


McWilliams, William H., Jr.


McWilliams, Wright H.


McWhorter, A. A.


Meggo, D. W.


Mers , Andrew


Miles, J. R.


Morgan, James


Morgan, Mal


Murchinson, Lloyd


Musgrove, A. J.


Nations, William


Newton, Q. M.


Norsworthy, B. H.


Norsworthy, John


Norvell, Lipscomb, Jr.


Norvell, William


O'brien, J. Patreick


Odom, David


Odom, Richard


Odom, Wm.


Pace, N. A.


Perpego, Dr. E. J.


Pierce , J. M. (Jake)


Powell, Benjamin


Powell, B. Z.


Powell, J. M.


Price, F. P.


Priswell, J. C.


Ramsey, James T.


Ragsdale, Cod


Rice, A. H.


Rodgers, Jack


Rogers, A. C.


Rogers, Jerret I.


Rogers, Jesse B.


Rogers, Mason A.


Rolles, W. H.


Ross, W. M.


Ruthledge, J. M.


Scott, James B.


Seastrunk, S.


Seastrunk, Sims


Simmons, Stephen


Simmons, William


Sise, J. R.


Slank, D. D.


Slaughter, Geo.


Smith, Dewitt Clinton


Smith Elraha


Smith, J. D.


Smith, Newton J.


Smith, Robt.


Smith, Virgil


Smith, Wm.


Snell, E. I. D.


Stanz, T. P.


Stark, D. D.


Stark, Daniel L.


Stark, John H.


Stark, Samuel H.


Stephenson, A. M.


Stephenson, H. B.


Stephenson, J. W.


Stewart, A. E.


Stewart, R. M.


Stovall, Dave


Strong, T. E.


Strong, T. J.


Swift, George


Tanner, Isaac E.


Tanner, J. Lafayette


Tanner, Nathan I.


Tanner, Orion O.


Taylor, Francis M.


Tenny, A. C.


Thompson, Joseph


Timmer, L. J.


Trotti, J. L.


Wallea, James


Walton, B. A.


West, James


West, Richard


Westbrook, Joshua


Westbrook, Henry


Westbrook, Stephen


Westbrook, W. B.


Welch, F. T.


Whitman, Benjamin


Whitman, George


Whitman, Joe


Whitman, John A.


Wilkerson, William


Wilson, Asbury


Wilson, Edward


Wilson, Francis, Jr.


Wilson, Thomas P.


Wilson, William E.


WILSON, William S.


Wingate, D. R.


Wingate, John


Wingate, S. B.


Wistuning, H. S.


Witherington, N. A.


Witherington, A. N.


Woods, Allen


Woods, Calaway


Woods, M. W.


Wright, William H.


Young, Chesley M.


Young, Jonathan


Young, Samuel Stedman


Youngblood, John J.


Youngblood, John Ira


Youngblood, Richard Dick


Zachary, William A.



Spanish American War


Camerson, Charles

McMillan, B. F.

Ohman, Benjamin


World War I


World War I began with an assassin's bullet. Francis Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Hungary, was killed in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip. Princip maintained ties with a Serbian terrorist organization, leading Austrian-Hungarian leaders to believe that the assassination was sponsored by the Serbian government. This prompted Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia on July 28, 1914.

The war quickly escalated as European nations realized the far-reaching implications of this war. Germany joined with Austria-Hungary in a matter of days to form the Central Powers. Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire joined about two months later. Serbia was the first to make up the Allies. It was quickly joined by the British Empire, Belgium, France, and Japan. Other nations joined in the following years. A list of the Allies and Central Powers and the dates that they joined are as follows:

The Allies

Belgium (August 4, 1914)

Guatemala (April 23, 1918)

Panama (April 7, 1917)

Brazil (October 26, 1917)

Haiti (July 12, 1918)

Portugal (April 7, 1917)

British Empire (August 4, 1914)

Honduras (July 19, 1918)

Romania (August 27, 1916)

China (August 14, 1917)

Italy (May 23, 1915)

Russia (August 1, 1914)

Costa Rica (May 23, 1918)

Japan (August 23, 1914

San Marino (June 3, 1915)

Cuba (April 7, 1917)

Liberia (August 4, 1917)

Serbia (July 28, 1914)

France (August 3, 1914)

Montenegro (August 5, 1914)

Siam (July 22, 1917)

Greece (July 2, 1917)

Nicaragua (May 8, 1918)

United States (April 6, 1917)


The Central Powers

Austria-Hungary (July 28, 1914)

Germany (August 1, 1914)

Bulgaria (October 14, 1915)

Ottoman Empire (October 31, 1914)


Germany and Austria-Hungary were the major Central players. By the time the First World War broke out, the German army was the best trained army in the world. It used a mandatory draft to enlist all able-bodied men to serve. The Germans then focused on building a potent navy. At first, Austria-Hungary wanted the war to be solely between it and Serbia. However, when Russia mobilized to defend Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia. Germany then declared war on France. As the German forces swept into France, they invaded Belgium, a neutral country. This prompted Britain to declare war on Germany. Most other European countries quickly followed suit.

Germany's war plan had been devised long before the war was evident. The German strategy, the Schlieffen Plan, called for two wings of the German Army to sweep westward. This plan was followed well until the right wing got overambitious. It followed retreating French troops, leaving the Germans exposed from the rear. French forces, stationed at the Marne River, managed to defeat the Germans at the First Battle of the Marne. This major victory ended Germany's hope for a quick defeat of France. The Germans and the Allies then engaged in what was known as the Race to the Sea. The Germans hoped to cut off Allied ports. However, Allied forces, in the First Battle of Ypres, halted the German offensive. This battle lasted about a month.

On the Western Front, not much happened for about 31/2 years. This front consisted of about 750 miles of land.

Russia mobilized on the Eastern Front faster than expected. Almost immediately, Russia lost 250,000 men to the Austro-Hungarian army. During each of the three Austro-Hungarian assaults on Serbia, the Russians pushed them back. By October, the Austro-Hungarian army had retreated back to its own territory. In one of the largest battles of the war, the Battle of the Somme, over one million casualties were recorded, yet the Allies only gained about seven miles of ground. Even with massive battles such as these, the Western front stayed right where it was. During one Russian offensive orchestrated by Czar Nicholas II, the Russians took about 200,000 Austro-Hungarian prisoners. This was a great moment for the Allies, but Russia took a great deal of damage.

Italy, in a secret treaty with the Allies, would receive Austro-Hungarian land after the war in exchange for an attack on Austro-Hungarian forces. The Italian Front was a similar story to the Western Front. Several large battles took place. Little strategic territory was acquired by either side, but the Austro-Hungarian army suffered tremendous losses.

One of Germany's greatest achievements in wartime was the U-Boat. These submarines blockaded the British Isles and sank many merchant ships trying to deliver supplies to Britain. On May 17, 1915, a U-Boat sank the Lusitania, a cruise liner, killing 1,198 people, including 128 Americans. President Wilson, in response, urged Germany to cease this type of warfare. They agreed to stop attacks on neutral vessels. The Battle of Jutland, the only major sea battle of the war, caused major losses on both sides. However, Britain still ruled the seas.

A series of strategic blunders on the part of the Allies demoralized forces. It became more and more clear that the Austro-Hungarians might prevail. However, the United States soon entered the war after the interception of the "Zimmerman Note." This was a message from Germany's foreign minister to its ambassador to Mexico. The Note revealed a plot to persuade Mexico to declare war on the U.S. At the beginning of U.S. involvement, the Regular Army numbered about 126,000. By the war's end, there were about 5 million Armed Forces members.

In the last of three German offensives on the Western Front, the Second Battle of the Marne, the Germans were defeated. The Allies marched eastward, easily conquering most of the Germans' territory. In the Fall of 1918, the Allies won all fronts. On November 11, 1918, the Germans finally surrendered, ending the Great War. 10 million people had died; 21 million were wounded.

In May 1919, after threatening to invade Germany, the Allies presented the Treaty of Versailles to the Germans. On June 28, 1919, in the Palace of Versailles, German representatives signed the treaty. Along with this treaty, the Allies also created individual treaties for the remaining Central powers. Austria signed the Treaty of St.-Germain in September of 1919, Bulgaria the Treaty of Neuilly in November, Hungary the Treaty of Trianon in June 1920, and the Ottoman Empire the Treaty of Sèvres in August 1920. The provisions of these treaties follow:

The Treaty of Versailles (German)-

The Treaty of St.-Germain and the Treaty of Trianon reduced Austrian and Hungarian land while recognizing Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Yugoslavia as independent nations.

The Treaty of Sèvres took Lebanon, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and Transjordan away from the Ottoman Empire. Bulgaria also lost some of their territory to Greece and Romania.

Adams, Lee V.


Alfred, Duffie


Alfred, Robert


Arrant, Norman


Barlow, Daniel E.


Barnett, John E.


Bean, Arnold R.


Bean, Ed


Bean, John H.


Bean, Sol


Bickers, Henry B.


Bluitt, Blano


Boler, Benjamin, Sr.


Brack, Adrain S.


Brinson, Robert M.


Burnaman, Nolan Oree


Burnham, Cleveland G


Byerly, Wirt A.


Bylery, Warren J.


Cade, Calvin


Cameron, Charles


Canes, Cornelius


Cato, Lewis


Clack, Richard


Clark, James M.


Clark, Joe Henry


Clary, Charles E.


Clossner, James C.


Cofty, William Cecil


Cole, Allen


Collins, Persy


Craig, Gilbert


Cratie, David


Crook, Jim H.


Daniel, Guy


Daniel, Roy


Davis, Carl Vernon


Davis, Chester


Davis, Joseph Lee


Davis, Robert M.


Davis, Samuel Olive


Dean, Albert


Derrough, James H.


Dickerson, Herbert, Sr.


Dickerson, J. T.


Diggs, Dudley


Dorman, Jeff


Dry, Edgar


Dubose, Paul


Ebarb, Henry


Erwin, Albert D.


Erwin, Dewey B.


Farr, Elden


La Fleur, Luke


Folsom, Edward O.


Forse, Floyd


Fowler, Samuel


Franklin, Marvin P.


Fuller, Wallace B.


Gasway, John R., Jr.


Gatson, Elige


Gibson, Thomas A.


Gilchrist, Patrick


Gill, John Herman


Gooch, Robert L.


Gray, Ernest Paul


Greer, Harwell J.


Griggs, Joe W. T.


Gunter, General O.


Hall, Marvin E.


Hafford, Buster


Hamilton, John F.


Hardy, Vincent


Harrell, Jess M.


Hawthorne, Simon


Herrin, Arthur B.


Hicks, Elijah


Hines, Ira


Holmes, John T.


Horace, Grover C.


Horn, Marvin G.


Hughes, Benjamin Franklin


Hughes , John West


Inman, Archie L.


Irons, Hugh


Irvin, Clarence


Irvin, Joseph E.


Isaac, L. C.


Jackson, Charlie


Jones, Joshua


Jones, Robert C.


Johnson, Arron


Johnson, Albert G.


Johnson, Joe


Johnson, Prentis


Keen, John


Kelley, Ben F.


Kellum, Grover


King, Archie N.


Kimble, R. B.


Langston, Lee


Lasenby, Ika


Langley, Cary J.


Latham, Hilary B.


Leach, Craig


Leggett, Rufus Lester


Leviase, Tonnic


Lewis, Ottis H. (Bo)


Hoy E. Loftin


Love, Andrew Jackson


Marshall, Ernest E.


Marshall, Ernie


Matthews, Wiley


Mattox, Freddie


McCain, Griffin


McCully, Issac


McDaniel, Wert


McGraw, Emmett


McMillan, Deral


McMillan, Horace


McMillan, Woodrow


McDonald, Claude C.


Medley, Ramsey


Miller, Edward T.


Miller, George W.


Miller, Robert E.


Moore, Sam


Morris , Foster J.


Morris, John C.


Newberry, Jesse Allen


Newton, L. M. Goob


Nichols, Claudie


Nordstorm, Jas.


Peacock, Will


Pence, Samuel


Perkins, George


Peters, Lee


Pierce, Columbus


Poliey, Charles Ralph


Ratcliff, Herman


Ratcliff, John Logan


Rath, Leon Allen


Rawls, Dan


Rea, W. C.


Rhodes, Willie


Samuel , Connie


Samuel, L. D.


Samuel, Robert E.


Sellers, James


Shankle, William M.


Sherrod, Harvey C.


Simmons, Ben


Simmons, Don C.


Simmons, Edwin


Simmons, Lonnie T.


Simmons, L. C.


Simmons, L. G.


Simmons, Mark, Jr.


Simmons, Rufus R.


Simmons, Russell


Starks, Hubert A.


Russell Simmons




Smart, Arthur, Jr.


Smith, Albert F.


Smith, James C.


Smith, Parson N.


Smith, Robert L.


Smith, Willie E.


Stark, Jesse E.


Stephenson, John Alvin


Stephenson, Wm. E.


Stephenson, Lloyd


Stewart, John E.


Strayhand, David


Sylvester, Herman


Tanner, J. L.


Tanner, Orion O.


Thomas, Carl, Jr.


Thrasher, John L.


Tillery, Grady P.


Tompkins, Jesse W.


Twine, Ardest L.


Twine, J. P.


Tyler, Meredith (Hog)


Vancil, Leonard L.


Vincent, Hardy


Vinson, Homer


Walcock, Gordon H.


Watson, Frank


Watson, Sim S.


Westbrook, S. H.


Wilkinson , Austin


Williams, James H.


Williams, William M.


Wilson, Frank


Wilson, H. F. (Pete)


Wilson, Herbert


Wilson, J. K., Jr.


Wilson, Joseph Jat


Wilson, Robert B.


Wingate, John


Woods, Claude


Woods, Dean


Woods, Dewan


Woods, Fred


Woods, Wyonte


Wright, Arthur S.


Wright, Homer B.


Wright, Thomas R.


Young, Val


Youngblood, John Jackson



World War II


The Second World War was the most deadly, destructive and consequential war in history. Seventeen million military personnel died in the war. Civilian deaths in the Soviet Union and China alone totaled 30 million.

Causes of the war can be traced back to the end of World War I. Germany, Italy, and Japan suffered deep economic problems. Inflation was rampant. However, by the late 1920s, economic order was being restored. This trend reversed when the United States entered the Great Depression. The citizens of what would be the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) supported nationalistic organizations which offered hope in the face of these problems. These organizations soon gave birth to tyranny, however. Totalitarian dictatorships arose in the Soviet Union, Japan, Italy, and Germany; these were led by Josef Stalin, Emperor Hirohito, Benito Mussolini, and Adolf Hitler, respectively. These leaders seized power by promising reform through unity. Under the dictatorships, however, terror reigned. Dictators used secret police, threats, imprisonment and even executions to eliminate their opposition.

Some consider the start of World War II to be Japan's invasion of Manchuria, a region in eastern China. Japan continued to demonstrate aggression, effectively conquering eastern China by 1938. Italy, meanwhile, conquered Ethiopia in 1936. Germany, in 1938, united Austria with itself. There was essentially no stopping this aggression, since the League of Nations lacked the power to enforce its treaties. (The League had been formed after World War I as an international forum for disputes.) In 1936, German and Italy allied. Japan joined in 1940, forming the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis.

During this time, Spain was in civil war. General Francisco Franco led the rebellious army Nationalists against Spain's government. Hitler and Mussolini supported the revolution. The Spanish Civil War divided the world into those who supported Nazism and Fascism, and those who were against it.

Hitler and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain held several meetings to restore peace. They agreed that if Hitler took Czechoslovakia, he would not try to acquire more territory. Hitler defiantly broke his promise by invading Poland 11 months later, on September 1, 1939. Germany's blitzkrieg (lightning war) quickly overcame the large, but poorly equipped Polish Army. The blitzkrieg relied on speed and surprise. It was carried out flawlessly. Britain and France pledged their support for the Allied cause, but stood by while Hitler swallowed Poland. Journalists dubbed this the Phony War.

German forces then conquered Denmark and Norway, seizing vital ports. Following these invasions, Chamberlain resigned. He was replaced by Winston Churchill on May 10, 1940. Germany, on the same day, created another blitzkrieg, immediately taking Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands. The French hoped to hold off the aggressive Germans by use of the Maginot Line, a strip of defense along the French-German border. It proved futile, however, as the Germans simply proceeded around it and into France. The blitzkrieg once again made its appearance, this time beginning on June 5. It proved effective once more. The French signed an armistice on June 22. France had fallen.

In a massive air war, the Luftwaffe, the German air force, began to mount assaults on British RAF (Royal Air Force) stations. By September 1940, Germany thought it had destroyed the RAF, so it proceeded to bomb London. This series of attacks on Britain's capital was known as the Blitz. Great Britain remained great, however, and survived Germany's most destructive efforts. Germany halted its air efforts in May 1941.

Meanwhile, British forces in North Africa were fighting to repel the invading Italians. Britain managed to keep Italy out of Egypt and pushed them back to Libya. In the beginning of 1941, the Afrika Korps, led by General Erwin Rommel, was sent to help the Italian forces. Rommel's crafty methods eventually earned him the famed moniker, "The Desert Fox." Britain held on. In May of 1941, Britain had regained control of northern Africa.

In March and April of 1941, the Germans quickly captured Yugoslavia and Greece. When British soldiers retreated to the island of Crete, Germany orchestrated the first ever airborne invasion, dropping thousands of paratroopers who quickly took the island. These conquests were an error on Hitler's part, however. Hitler had been planning to invade the Soviet Union for some time. But, with the delays, he would now have to fight an extended, bitter winter war.

Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union, began on June 22, 1941. The Soviets soon suffered hundreds of thousands of casualties. The invasion went well for the Germans. This lasted briefly however. Instead of taking Moscow, Hitler opted for a dual-flank approach, sending some forces north to Leningrad, and some south towards the Black Sea. Meanwhile, the harsh weather began. October rains caught the Germans in mud. In early December, as German troops began to march into Moscow, winter began. Temperatures fell to -40º. The German advance stopped as abruptly as it began.

Germany's battleships struggled to cut off Allied sea supply routes. But British task forces managed to destroy the bulk of Germany's battleship fleet. The largest such attack was against the German Navy's pride and joy, the Bismarck. A fleet of British warships surrounded and sank the Bismarck in May of 1941. However, the Germans still had a trick up their collective sleeve: the U-Boat. For two years, U-Boats sank every Allied supply ship they could find. But long-range torpedo bombers, warship escorts of supply ships, and the new Allied technology of sonar curbed the threat of the dreaded Unterseeboote.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt hoped to win the war by supplying Allied nations with the weapons they needed, rather than sending the United States into war. The Lend-Lease Act gave 38 nations about $50 billion in U.S. aid.

Japan, stuck in China, decided to cut off vital Chinese supply lines from Southeast Asia. Japan entered and controlled northern Indochina. The U.S. responded by cutting Japan's supply of American goods. Japan wanted to return to its expansion plans, so it turned on the one force that could stop it: the United States Navy. On December 7, 1941, a Japanese task force attacked the Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, in Hawaii. They sank four battleships, and destroyed nearly 20 aircraft. The next day, the U.S., Canada, and Great Britain declared war on Japan.

The Soviets, in December 1941, recovered and pushed the Germans back 100 miles outside of Moscow. In Spring 1942, the Germans marched towards oil reserves in the Caucasus. Hitler ordered the capture of Stalingrad. A five-month battle ensued. The Soviets, in a counter-attack, captured and killed 300,000 German soldiers, stopping Germany's eastward march.

In 1941, Allied defeats stopped in Europe. In eastern Europe the Soviets prevented the German advance in eastern Europe. Soviets defeated the Germans in a battle at Stalingrad in 1943. The allies were soon on a roll. They won battles in Africa and forced Italy to surrender in 1943. In 1944, the Allies prepared for an invasion in northern France.

Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met together in 1943 in Teheran, Iran to discuss the strategy and plans behind the invasion. They talked to each other about a British and American large-scale attack, called Operation Overlord, on the beach of Normandy along the northern coast of France. This attack was to be known as the D-Day Invasion. It will have been the largest seaborne invasion in history. Hitler laughed and said his forces could resist any attack on the coast. The invasion would deploy Allied soldiers ashore on five beaches under the code names of Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword. The Germans were not sure what beach the Allies were going to attack so they built a chain of fortifications along the coast called the Atlantic wall. Hitler left General Rommel in charge to strengthen there defenses. Rommel put up barbed wire, he mined the water, and concentrated his troops near the Calais, the narrowest part of the English Channel. On June 6th, 2,700 Allied ships carrying 176,00 soldiers led by General Dwight Eisenhower crossed the English channel. Paratroops were dropped off behind enemy lines to capture bridges and railroad tracks. D-Day caught the Germans by surprise. Germans fought fiercely, but did not win the battle. The Allies built a temporary harbor, to receive supplies, and a pipeline across the British Channel for oil. Near the end of June, about a million troops had accumulated in France.

The Allies advanced slowly in the beginning. The Americans fought and capture Cherbourg on June 27, and the British and Canadian forces fought and captured Caen on July 18. The Allied forces had finally reached open country.

On July 25, 1944 bombers blasted a hole in the German front near St-Lo. Lieutenant General George Patton plowed through the gap and exterminated the Germans from northwest France. Patton ordered his army toward Paris. On August 19, 1944, Parisians heard the news and rose up against the German troops occupying Paris. The German troops in Paris were ordered by Hitler to destroy Paris, but they delayed and the Allies reached Paris on August 25th to liberate France. Slowly, the Allied forces moved toward Germany. The German Generals knew they were beat and tried to tell Hitler, but he brought together his remaining forces for one last attack at the Ardennes Forest (Belgium & Luxembourg). He won this Battle of the Bulge, however, in two weeks, the Americans stopped the German advance near the Meuse River (Belgium).

Meanwhile, the Soviets had slowly pushed back the Germans after the Battle at Stalingrad. The Soviets were producing and importing war supplies from Britain and America, preparing for another offensive by the Germans at Kursk. The Soviet forces waited for them with tanks, mines, anti-tank guns and aircraft; completely obliterating the oncoming German troops and tanks. The rest of the 3,000 German tanks were ordered to retreat during the battle. The Soviet forces, then, moved toward Leningrad. They defeated the Germans there and move onward to Poland. When they reach the outskirts of Warsaw, Stalin refused to come to Polish aid resulting in a German onslaught of 200,000 Polish soldiers. Afterwards, the Soviets entered in and destroyed the Germans in 1945. Another series of Soviet troops began to move towards Hungary crushing all German forces in their path. Soviet troops reached Budapest and drove the German forces out in February of 1945. After their strong advance, the Soviets had occupied almost all of eastern Europe.

The Allies began their final assault in 1945. Soviet forces were advancing from the East to Berlin, British and Canadian forces came from the North, and American and French forces neared central Germany. In all, the Allies had almost surrounded the Germans. Prior to closing in on the Germans, those Allies passing through previously occupied areas were terrified at the sights at the concentration camps.

Hitler committed suicide before the Allied forces took Berlin. On May 7, 1945, Colonel General Alfred Doenitz, Hitler's replacement, signed a declaration of unconditional surrender, ending the war in Europe.

In the Pacific

The war with the Japanese was a personal vendetta for the U.S., after Japan bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Japan won several early victories including: taking over Hong Kong, Guam, and Wake Island, defeating the British in Singapore, the Battle of the Java Sea, and the conquest of the Philippines. MacArthur's troops were ordered to Australia after leaving the Philippines in March 1942. On April 9, about 75,000 exhausted troops on Bataan surrendered to the Japanese. Most of them were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps, but most of them died. This march was called the Bataan Death March. After the Philippines were captured, Japan moved toward India and Australia.

In 1942, there were 3 events that helped turn the tide on the Japanese. One of them was the Doolittle raid in which 16 B-52 bombers surprised Tokyo with minor bombing. The 2nd event was the Battle of the Coral Sea which halted the Japanese attack on Port Moresby. The 3rd event was the Battle of Midway, in which Japan sent a large fleet to capture one of the Hawaiian islands, but the Americans intercepted the plan and prepared for a surprise attack. The battle began on June 4, 1942 when the Japanese bombed the island of Midway. Old U.S. bombers launched bombers on Japanese warships, but most of them were shot down. Next, American dive bombers dropped down on Japanese aircraft carriers while they were refueling. The e Japanese had lost 4 aircraft carriers and at least 200 planes along with many skilled pilots. Japan had only sunk 1 U.S. aircraft carrier and shot down 150 planes. The Battle of Midway was a clear victory for the Allies.

Meanwhile, the Allies battled to regain most of the islands in the Pacific. In 1942, MacArthur attacked New Guinea with a series of brilliant operations, but fighting continued until 1944. On August 7, 1942, marines invaded Guadalcanal. This attack caught the Japanese by surprise, but they fought strong. This battle proved to be one of the most vicious campaigns in WWII. By February 1943, Japan left Guadalcanal. In 1943, Allied military leaders canceled the invasion of Rabaul; instead, they bombed it. After beating back the Japanese, the Allies finally liberated the Philippines in 1944. Superiority in air and sea combat enabled the Allies to move onto Japan itself.

Allied forces first attack Iwo Jima. The marines landed on February 19, 1945. The marines successfully won the battle, but with a struggle. Okinawa was the next stop. Japan sent kamikazes to attack the marine landing force, but they still defeated Japan at Okinawa.

On August 6, 1945 due their refusal to give into the US's ultimatum, the B-29 American bomber, the Enola Gay, dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Three days later, America dropped another atomic bomb on Nagasaki, after Japanese leaders failed to respond to the first bombing. On September 2, 1945, Japan finally gave in and signed a statement of surrender ending WWII.



Abrahams, Joseph D.


Adams, Charles Neal


Adams, Clyde


Alfred, Duffie


Alfred, Robert


Allen, Murray M.


Anderson, Odell


Anthony, Johnny D.


Adaway, Napoleon B.


Bacon, O'neal


Barnett, James


Barnett, Marlon Wayne


Bass, James


Bass, John


Bean, Ira S.


Bean, Jack


Bean, Jefferson


Bean, John T.


Bean, Johnny


Bean, Lynn


Bean, Matt


Bean, Robert


Berry, Charles H.


Berry, Woodrow H., Sr.


Beatty, Mitchell


Bergstresser, David


Bendo, George R.


Bilbo, Harry B.


Biscamp, Robert




Boley, Cecil B.


Boodry, Bertie H.


Boodry, Theodore


Booker, C. H., Sr.


Booker, Marvin J.


Booker, Thomas


Boughan, James F.


Bragg, J. T.


Bragg, Jeay


Brinson, Robert M., Jr.


Brooks, Jesse


Brown, Albie M.


Brown, Charles A.


Brown, Murry E.


Buckmaster, Cecil


Burnaman, Joseph William


Butaud, James W.


Byerly, Warren J.


Byerly, Willie Clara


Cade, Fred


Claton, Harvey


Claton, Roy


Calhoun, Otis


Calhoun, Theo


Calhoun, Tom


Calhoun, Virgil


Campbell, W. L.


Canty, Billy


Caples, Cecil E.


Carroll, Rufus F.


Carter, Marion F.


Cash, G. E.


Caswell, Cecil


Cheatwood, Alton


Choate, Danny M.


Calillier, Joseph


Clanton, Harvey


Clanton, Roy


Clare, James M.


Clark, Basil M.


Clark, Charles


Clark, E. L. (Punk)


Clark, Johnnie


Cochran, Jesse


Cochran, Joseph A.


Cofty, Vernon


Coker, Therman


Collins, Percy


Collins, Pete


Cole, William H.


Coleman, Lloyd


Coleman , Lloyd


Coleman, Lloyd E.


Cooper, Dewayne


Cornes, W. H.


Cosper, James


Cottingham, Herbert James


Cottonjim, Herbert


Cox, William


Craig, Gilbert


Cunningham, William H.


Dainwood, John A., Jr.


Daniel, George Amos


Daniel, Leland


Daniels, R. R.


Davis, A. R.


Davis, Armand R.


Davis, Avril


Davis, Eddice


Davis, H. L.


Davis, Hillary James


Davis, Jack


Davis, Leland


Davis, Luther


Davis, M. M.


Davis, R. C.


Davis, Roy Tilman


Davis, Seborn E.


Davis, Tilmon


Davison, H. A.


Day, Cecil


Day, Wilson


Dean, David Leon


Dean, Leon


Dean, Roy


Dillinger, Lander


Dennard, J. O.


Derrough , Joe


Derrough, Luther


Dickerson, Cecil


Dickerson, Cecil T.


Dickerson, I. B.


Dickerson, W. L.


Dry, Edgar


Eddlemon, Mollie


Ener, W. L.


Erwin, Billie Harod


Erwin, Bobbie D.


Erwin, Cecil J.


Erwin, D. B., Jr.


Erwin, Fred


Erwin, James D.


Evans, J. D.


Ervin, Carrenson


Farmer, Raymond


Fairchild, Fuller


Fairchild, James


Ferguson, R. C.


Ferguson, Sammy


Fillyaw, Lee Roy


Flanigan, Richard


Fomby, Alvin


Ford, Gus


Forse, J. B., Jr.


Fortenberry, Walter


Fowler, Jesse


Frank, Robert W.


Freeman, O. B.


Freeman, Robert


Flurry, Elmer


Freeman, Robert L.


Fuller, Bill


Fuller, Joe Allen


Garner, Davis L.


Gasaway, Buddy


Gaudet, Howard


Gee, John Cleveland


Gee, Richard M.


Gee, thomas


Gerald, C. M.


Gibson, James


Gibson, Thomas


Gibson, Warren


Gilchrist, T. L. Winston


Gill, John Herman


Gillard, Jesse


Gilley, Louise Houguson


Gilley, Polk


Glenn, Elisha


Goddard, James Albert


Goodwin, Phillip A.


Gordon, H. G.


Graw, John


Gray, D. S.


GRAY, Wm. J.


Gregory, Irvin


Griffin, Jean


Griffin, Joe


Griggs, John A.


Griggith, Geo. T.


Griner, James


Gunter, Edwin


Gunter, B. J.


Gunter, Charles


Gunter, Sutton


Gunter, Tulia


Gunter, W. H.


Hale, Marvin


Hall, Alice


Hall, Billy


Hall, Guy


Hall, John


Hall, Leslie


Hall, Marvin F.


Hall, Royce Herman


Hall, W. H., Jr.


Hall (Samford) , Willie B.


Hamilton, John F.


Hamilton, Ray


Harrell, Dan


Harris, Hoy


Hatch, Marion Lee


Hawthorne, Simon


Hendricks, Donald


Hennigan, Howard F.


Henry, J. B.


Henshaw, Earl F.


Henson, James Kay


Herrin, Charlie


Herrin, Lavelle


Herrin, Luther


Herrin, Mason


Herrin, Johnnie


Herrin, Mason H.


Hile, Hubert


Hill, James Olen


Hines, R. M.


Hobbs, R. L. (Kitty)


Holmes, Colones B.


Holt, Willard


Hooks, Herman


Hooks, Joe Allen


Hooks, Nana Day


Hooks, Oneal


Hooks, Ray


Horace, Grover C.


Hougensen, Lucille


Huffman, Hebert


Huffman, Tom Vernon


Hughes, Benjamin Franklin


Hughes, Bill


Hughes, E. P., Jr.


Hughes, Joseph W.


Hughes, Victor Hugh


Hughes, William Amos


Hutson, Joseph A.


Humphrey, Burton


Humphrey, Robbie


Hunter, J. C.


Hurst, Nathan Irvin (Johnny)


Huskey, Roland C.


Inman, Alvie M.


Inman, Herman M.


Inman, James Lafe


Irby, R. L.


Irvin, J. B.


Irvin, Tad B.


Irvine, Wilbert H.


Irvine, J. B.


Issac, L. C.


Jackson, Hercules


Jackson, Lester


Jenkins, Lester Roy


Jetton, Martin


Johnson, F. C.


Johnson, Frederick C.


Jones, Ben


Jones, Chester


Jones, Clarence L.


Jones, Garvie


Jones, Harold Lloyd


Jones, H. T.


Jones, Jack


Jones, John Daniel, Jr.


Jones, Luther


Jones, Kenneth


Jones, Pete


Jones, R. J.


Jones, Tim


Jones, Tom, Jr.


Jones, Travis


Jones, W. A. (Sonnu)


Jones, W. A. (Sonny)


Joyce, Willie D.


Kees, Minos P.


Kelley, Nathan Hampton


Kelly, Jack


Kellum, Grover


Kennon, R. J.


Kent, John


King, Archie


Knight, Clarence


Lane, Carl


Langley, J. C.


Langham, Odis


Lavine, Jasper N.


Lazenby, Cecil B.


Leach, Jesse


Lee, Edward J.


Lee, Leighton


Leonard, Melvin E.


Lewis, Albertus


Lewis, Cato


Lewis, Benton


Lewis, Cade


Lewis, Oksie Gipson


Lewis, Troy


Linscomb, Earnest


Love, Jack


Low, Alex Debruel


Lowery, Freand, Fr.


Major, Joseph


Manchez, Randal


Mansfield, Richard


Manning, Authur Earl


Marshall, Alvin


Marshall, W. M


Martin, Aubrey


Martin, Lt. Autry


Martin, Bill


Marze, E. L.


Massa, Thomas J.


Matthews, Abbie Rushin


Matthews, L. C.


Mattox, Dooney


Mattox, Jesse, Sr.


Mattox, Joe B.


Mattox, Woodrow


McBride, Arnold


McBride, Dredson


McBride, Fred


McBride, Joseph


McBride, Leondrus


McBride, Ulysses


McCoy, Wagner


McDaniel, Sim Albert


McDonald, Arnold


McGraw, James D., Sr.


McGraw, Wallis


McGraw, Willie Dennis


McKinzey, J. L.


McMahon, Claude W.


McMahon, J. C.


McNeil, James C.


Meadown, Betty Rose


Meadows, Wayne


Medley, Ramsey


Miller, Arch A. Jr.


Miller, Arthur


Miller, Clinton


Miller, Dell


Miller, Eugene


Miller, Harris


Miller, Huey R.


Miller, James


Miller, Jack


Miller, Lutcher


Miller, Wayne


Milligan, Jack


Mitchell, William


Mitschke, Robert A.


Moore, James


Morris, Hilliard


Morris, John C.


Morris, O. V.


Mullins, Bert


Mullins, George


Mullins, Tom


Nash, Aubrey Cody


Nash, George


Nash, P. R.


Navarre, Charles E.


Norsworthy, James


O'Brien, Jeremiah


Odom, Billy


Odom, Thomas T.


Ohman, August


Owens, Everett


Oxley, Willard


Ozan, George C.


Ozment, Perry


Partin, George E.


Patterson, Pat


Peacock, Peroy


Pence, James


Pence, Haward


Pence, Sam


Perego, Edgar A.


Perego, Morris


Perego, Orean P.


Perry, Johnnie


Petego, Clarence


Peters, Billy Frank


Peveto, Roland Lee


Phelps, Clarence A


Phelps, Ray


Phelps, Sam


Pineda, Joseph


Ponder, George


Powell, David B.


Powell, George C.


Powell, Samuel D.


Prewitt, T.J.


Pryor, Nell


Riley, James C.


Ramsey, Charles


Ramsey, Edward


Ramsey, John C.


Ratcliff, John L.


Rawls, Dan


Ray, William


Roser, Bevis


Russell, Warren C.


Skelton, John Odis


Samuel, Babe Ruth


Samuel, Cunie


Samuel, K. C.


Sheffield, Monroe


Siau, Fred L.


Siau, Wilburn Q.


Simmons, Ben


Simmons, Don C.


Simmons, J. T., Jr.


Simmons, Wm. L


Simmons, Mark, Jr.


Sims, Bonnie Lee


Smith, Johnnie N.


Smith, Max L.


Smith, Preston


Smith, Roy J.


Singleton, Robert


Staley, Paul


Strawther, Jess E.


Stovall, John M.


Swatte, Leon M.


Sylvester, Garfield


Thompson, Elmer


Tippett, Rudolph


Tippett, William


Tomplait, Donald


Townsend, John M.


Twine, Ardest


Underwood, William C., Sr.


Vinson, C. D.


Wagner, McCoy


Walton, William


Watson, Perry L.


Watson, Jesse Roland


Webster, Lloyd


West, Donald


West, George


West, James


West, Owen B.


West, Suddeth


Whitman, Bennie


Williams, Alton


Williams, Clark


Williams, James P.


Williams, Jim


Williams, Lloyd


Williams, William H.


Wilson, Thomas J.


Young, Gerald N.


Young, M. C.


Zachry, Troy Benjamin



Korean War


The Korean War was the result of the division of Korea. Despite a long history of independence, Korea was forcibly annexed by Japan in 1910, which held control until the end of World War II. On August 10, 1945 in response to the occupation of northern Korea by the U.S.S.R., the United States decided to occupy the southern half of Korea. The U.S. government did so out of fear that the U.S.S.R., which joined the fight against Japan in northern Korea a week earlier, would take control of the entire Korean Peninsula. American planners chose to divide Korea at the 38th parallel because it would keep the capital city, Seoul, in the American-occupied southern zone; the U.S.S.R. acquiesced to the division, with no official comment.

The U.S.S.R. installed a Communist government in North Korea in September 1948. The new government promoted and supported a rebellion in South Korea, also known as the Republic of Korea (ROK), designed to topple the U.S.-backed government and gain total control of Korea. When two years passed and the grass roots rebellion did not produce the desired result, the northern government turned its attention to planning an all out invasion of South Korea.

At the beginning of 1950, North Korea deployed more than 70% of its forces along the 38th parallel. By mid-1950, the Korean Peoples Army (KPA) had between 150,000 and 200,000 combat-ready troops. They were organized into ten infantry divisions, one tank division with 280 tanks, and one air force division with 210 fighter planes. The ill-equipped South Koreans had an army of less than 100,000 inexperienced men that lacked tanks, heavy artillery and combat airplanes. They also had a coast guard of 4,000 men and a police force of 45,000 men.

On Sunday, June 25, 1950, the North Korean forces began their attacks across the 38th parallel, which divided North from South Korea. On June 26, the United States, along with other members of the United Nations, came to the aid of South Korea. President Harry S. Truman ordered the use of United States planes and naval vessels against North Korean forces; on June 30, U. S. ground troops were dispatched. The United States asked the United Nations Security Council to intervene, fearing that inaction in Korea would be interpreted as acceptance of communist aggression elsewhere in the world. When the Soviets walked out of the emergency session of the UN Security Council, the UN voted 9-0 to send troops to South Korea. The UN, in accordance with its Charter, engaged in its first collective action by establishing the United Nations Command (UNC), under which 16 member nations sent troops and assistance to South Korea. At the request of the UN Security Council, the United States as the largest contributing country, led this international effort. President Truman then ordered General Douglas MacArthur to head the UN forces.

Three days after their attack began, North Korea captured the South Korea's capital city of Seoul and continued south with little resistance. By August 4, North Korea's army captured most of South Korea. The United Nations and South Korean forces retreated to the port city of Pusan. Here they set up what became known as the Pusan Perimeter. Some of the heaviest fighting took place here during late August/early September with the outnumbered KPA sending wave after wave of troops in an attempt to break the perimeter setup by the joint forces.

General MacArthur soon realized that the North Korean forces were vulnerable to an amphibious attack and ordered a landing at Inch'on. This port city on the Yellow Sea was 25 km southwest of Seoul and would allow the UN forces to cut the North Korean road and rail supply lines. The attack on Inch'on took place on September 15, 1950, but without an appropriate landing zone, namely beaches, the landing forces used the available harbor and wharf facilities. The landing met with minimal resistance and the UN forces easily pushed inland. As expected, the invasion forces were able to cut the supply lines of the North Korean Army and the Communist soldiers fled up the peninsula, pursued by UN forces. By September 25 the North Korean Army, with their lines of communications severed and their escape routes imperiled, stopped fighting and stampeded in panic towards the 38th parallel.

There was a brief hesitation at the border between North and South Korea, the 38th parallel. With the South Korean Army already North of the 38th parallel, elements of the Eighth Army crossed into North Korea on October 9. At the same time the X Corps embarked at Inch'on for sea movement to Wonsan. On October 19, the North Korean capital of Pyongyang was captured and by October 28, the South Korean troops had reached the Yalu River. In hopes of ending operations before the onset of winter, MacArthur ordered an advance to the northern Korean border with China at the Yalu River on October 24. Two days later, UN forces made their first contact with the Chinese Communist forces in Korea. China had entered the war.

Over the course of the next month, reports from the front indicating Chinese resistance made their way to MacArthur but were discounted as only volunteers helping the KPA. In reality, a force of over 300,000 Chinese combat forces entered Korea undetected.

On November 24, UN forces began the "Home Before Christmas" offensive. Its objective was the destruction of the North Korean regime and the unification of Korea. Victory seemed close when the situation changed drastically. On November 25 the Chinese Communist forces attacked the Eighth Army in northeast Korea. When word of this attack reached MacArthur, he notified Washington, "We have an entirely new war".

On November 30, President Truman threatened to use the Atomic Bomb against the Chinese, but this did not deter them. From then until the end of the year, the North Korean Army, along with the Chinese forces, pushed the UN presence out of North Korea.

This push continued south in January 1951 and the North Korean Army again captured the South Korean capital of Seoul on January 4. In mid-January, the fighting diminished as the aggressor forces retreated to replenish supplies. By the end of January, the UN forces began a new attack against the Communist forces to push them back to the 38th parallel and retake Seoul.

On March 18, the UN forces regained control of Seoul. In the days that followed, the Eighth Army also regained much of the territory up to the 38th parallel. Knowing this, President Truman began to draw up an announcement that the UN forces were willing to begin discussions with the Chinese and North Koreans to conclude the hostilities. MacArthur was told of this and made his own offer to the enemy without consent from Washington or the UN.

President Truman never did make his offer and began seriously considering the removal of MacArthur based on what he perceived as insubordination by MacArthur. Before he could make his final decision, MacArthur openly disagreed and challenged Truman's national policy on the Korean Conflict. Truman recalled MacArthur on April 11 and named General Matthew B. Ridgeway to lead the UN forces. Prior to this appointment, General Ridgeway was in command of the Eighth Army.

Days after his appointment General Ridgeway was faced with a new offensive by the KPA/Chinese forces aimed at Seoul. The offensive was repelled just a few miles north of Seoul. The Communist forces staged another offensive on May 15 that was also repelled. The UN forces then staged a counter offensive and pushed the Communists back over the 38th parallel. For the next month, the fighting was limited to patrols and local clashes.

On June 23, the Soviet representative to the United Nations, Jacob Malik, proposed that truce talks begin. Both sides agreed and the first truce talks began in Kaesong on July 10.

From this point through April 1952, assaults by both sides occurred but none penetrated the other's defense and a stalemate occurred along the 38th parallel. The truce negotiations were also at an impasse. The talks broke down in August only to resume on October 25 in Panmunjom. The main hitch during the talks was the repatriation of the Prisoners of War (POWs) held by both sides.

In May 1952, a United Nations Command POW camp commander was captured and was held by the prisoners until the acting commander signed a statement, which admitted to the unjust treatment of the prisoners held by UN forces. Although this had great propaganda value for the North, the UN negotiators never changed their stance on repatriation of the POWs.

The United States elected a new president, Dwight D. Eisenhower, in its November elections based partly on his stand regarding Korea. In his campaigning he pledged to "...go to Korea" to attempt a peaceful resolution.

The final battles for Old Baldy, Eerie and Pork Chop Hill took place from late March to mid-April 1953. Throughout, truce negotiations continued and sick and wounded POWs were exchanged in late April.

On June 18, 1953 the Communists again broke off negotiations after the South Korean Army released 27,000 POWs who did not wish to be repatriated to the North Korea.

On July 10, the negotiations resumed after the UN assured the North Koreans that the Republic of Korea would abide by the terms of the cease-fire. Both parties signed the cease-fire agreement on July 27; the fighting ended 12 hours later.

This truce agreement created a demilitarized zone 2 kilometers wide on either side of the 38th parallel. This agreement is still in place today.

Abshire, Robert J., Sr.


Adams, Lloyd Edwin


Beard, Johnny


Booker, Robert T. (Bobbie)


Boughner, Leonald


Curl, Rubin, Jr.


Darden, Valson


Gordon, Woodrow


Greer, Earl R.


Hall, Arthur M.


Holmes, Roger


Huffman, Earl D.


Huffman, Horace


Jennings, Harold D.


Johnson, Burnard


Jones, Harold


Landrum, Tony E.


Lynch, Troy


McAdams, James D.


McBride, Kent


Nelson, Roy Lee


Newby, Samuel J.


Owens, Everett William


Pletz, Frederick T.


Richardson, Milton


Roberts, Joseph E.


Sells, Isaiah C.


Shaw, Elbert E.


Simmons, Herman


Smith, James Alton


Teal, David George


Thomas, Paul Eugene


Thompson, Chester


Thompson, Elmer


Tomlin, Billy


Tucker, Thomas J.


Wagner, Henry


West, Claude




The Vietnam War was a long, bloody conflict that ended with the United States' first major military upset. It had huge ramifications, nationally and globally.

The French had occupied Indochina since the 1800s. At the First Indochinese War, which lasted from the late 1940s to the mid 1950s, Communist forces defeated American-aided French troops in Vietnam. President Eisenhower, reacting to the Communist show of might, tried to establish an anti-Communist government just south of the 17th parallel. A pro-American named Ngo Dinh Diem came to power. Since he resisted the Communist movement's insurgent tendencies, he was supported by the United States Government. Diem was also supported by Catholics in Vietnam. However, the large non-Christian population of Vietnam rebelled at Diem's authoritarian manner. The U.S. began to send large amounts of military aid to Diem's regime. This was done under the reasoning that force was needed to protect South Vietnam, to halt the spread of Chinese Communism, and to keep Diem in power.

By this time, anti-Diem groups had banded together to form the Viet Cong, a group against which the U.S. centered a major strategic policy program. The Viet Cong, by 1960, had evolved into the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLFSV.) Since guerrilla warfare, propaganda, and recruiting were the Viet Cong's tactics, American strategists devised "strategic hamlets," relocation sites designed to keep Vietnamese isolated from Viet Cong influence. However, this plan backfired as the relocated Vietnamese became disgruntled, rebelled from the hamlets, and eventually joined the Viet Cong in droves.

With this, American military presence in the region increased dramatically. At the start of Kennedy's presidency, about 2,000 American troops were in Vietnam, compared to upwards of 15,000 by 1963. Simultaneously, more military advisors, training, and equipment were being provided to Diem's Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN.)

Diem was quickly becoming a strain on American and Vietnamese strategy. So when a group of top ARVN officers plotted to overthrow him, the U.S. gave covert assistance. On November 1, 1963, Diem and his brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu, were killed in the coup.

Weeks later, President Kennedy was assassinated, leaving the formidable matter in the hands of his successor, Lyndon B. Johnson. In 1964, two U.S. Navy vessels were allegedly attacked by North Vietnamese boats in the Gulf of Tonkin. In retaliation, (though critics claim it was to gain political support) the President ordered air strikes against North Vietnam. Johnson also gained support in Congress, which on August 7, 1964, passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, essentially granting the President limitless military power.

The air strikes increased, becoming more and more frequent, and often more deadly. Bombers used napalm, a potent jellied form of gasoline that burns long and is difficult to extinguish. Because of the nature of guerrilla warfare, it was difficult to distinguish between military and civilian targets, so both were attacked. To further the strategy of peasant isolation from Viet Cong influence, a tactic of destroying jungle and ground cover was used. Defoliant chemicals like Agent Orange were used to kill trees and thick brush, and napalm bombings were implemented to clear the countryside, causing civilians to flee to cities under U.S. and ARVN protection.

By the mid- to late 1960s, the Viet Cong was receiving generous quantities of aid from China and the Soviet Union. In 1968, they staged the Tet Offensive. A huge, well-orchestrated attack was mounted at about 120 strategic targets, including a U.S. Air Force station, 36 provincial capitals, and even the American embassy in South Vietnam's capital of Saigon. The Viet Cong was repelled, suffering heavy losses, but they had made their point: The Viet Cong was able to dominate all of Vietnam, if the U.S. was taken out of the equation.

To many, the war was becoming unpopular in the United States. Massive protests and peace rallies were beginning to take place, many at major universities and colleges. The Johnson was losing its credibility with a great deal of Americans.

The military, in late 1967-early 1968, requested 100,000 more U.S. troops, with the possibility of more requests. President Johnson refused, and also cut back bombing runs on North Vietnamese targets. Johnson then, in March of 1968, announced that he would not run for reelection. Richard Nixon won the presidential election in 1968.

Nixon was able to start peace negotiations, which briefly satisfied the strong appetite for peace felt by millions. The talks were held in Paris. The United States' and Vietnam's internal problems, however, soon dominated the talks, which lasted until 1973. By June of 1969, the NLFSV and other rebel groups organized a Provisional Revolutionary Government, which gained the rebels a place at the bargaining table.

In the fall of 1969, Nixon's administration began to withdraw troops from Vietnam. Bombing raids, though, were intensified.

The war had immense repercussions in the United States. The immense amounts of military spending caused large budget deficits, at a time when the economy was already slowing. The problem was multiplied by a weak dollar. The Vietnam War did not necessarily cause these problems, but it certainly accelerated them. The peace movement was also growing, and it eventually reached the armed forces. Protests within the rank and file led to desertion and insubordination. Racial tensions were also evident, since white officers led large numbers of black soldiers from inner cities. Drug and alcohol abuse also contributed to morale problems.

The war was soon to shift from Vietnam to neighboring Cambodia and Laos. In a coup in March of 1970, a Communist regime took power in Cambodia. In April of the same year, President Nixon ordered an invasion of Cambodia, coupled with extensive air strikes. With the invasion of Cambodia, the North Vietnamese were forced to use more supply routes through Laos. In February of 1971, ARVN troops invaded Laos in a disastrous raid. The fighting lasted for 45 days, and killed or wounded more than half of the ARVN's force.

South Vietnam's president, Nguyen Van Thieu, continued the mistakes his predecessors had made, banning elections, stifling free speech, and giving himself more military authority.

Through 1971 and 1972, Nixon continued his Vietnamization plan, withdrawing troops, increasing air attacks, and stepping up naval bombardment. To force the Communists to accept American terms, Nixon again increased bombing, this time on North Vietnamese towns and ports. These bombing missions also repelled the beginning Communist invasion of South Vietnam.

On January 27, 1973, a cease-fire was signed in Paris by the United States, North and South Vietnam, and the Viet Cong. Two months later, the last American forces left Vietnam. Without U.S. intervention, however, the peace negotiations disintegrated, and war resumed. North Vietnam began to conquer the south. In April, President Ford asked Congress for $722 million in aid for Vietnam. However, Congress only appropriated $300 million. This money was mostly used to evacuate South Vietnamese from Communist-occupied Saigon.

The war ended on April 30, 1975, with the South Vietnamese surrender. The Communists renamed Saigon as Ho Chi Minh City. 2.7 million Americans served in the war. 58,000 of them were killed. Another 365,000 were wounded. The South Vietnamese lost upwards of one million

soldiers, while the North had between 500,000 and a million deaths. Scores of civilians were killed, and 10 million became refugees. The bombs and defoliants used in the war scarred the countryside, permanently in some cases.

Vietnam still remains a poor country, with over a million people fleeing the nation since 1975. It relies heavily on Communist aid, and has hardly any economic value.

Bean, Jeff K.


Bean, Jerry K.


Bean, Robert F., Jr.


Claude, James W.


Conley, Ricky


Elliott, Kenneth Wayne


Freeman, Ernest


Glenn, Clarence


Gray, Brent Mason


Griffin, Philip Keith


Gould, Arthur Gene


Hall, James B.


Hall, Royce Herman, Jr.


Nelson, Sylvester, Jr.


Perry, Wilton


Pierce, LeRoy Sr.


Stroud, Roy A.


Tanton, Jarvie


Ward, Robert Earl


Williams, Stephen S.


Wright, Lewis A.


Y'Barbo, Marshall "Pete"


Pletz, Frederick T.



Desert Storm

Saddam Hussein thought he could reconstitute Iraq by invading Kuwait. That's exactly what he did. On August 2, 1990 Iraqi military forces invaded Kuwait by the orders of Saddam Hussein. The (UN) United Nations acted quickly. President George Bush forged a military coalition which consisted of Argentina, Bahrain, Australia, Canada, Belgium, Bangladesh, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Kuwait, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Poland, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Korea, Spain, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Untied Kingdom, and the United States of America. The United States assembled 500,000 soldiers, 1,800 aircraft, 100 ships. The UN ordered Saddam Hussein to leave Kuwait and restore Kuwaiti government by January 15, 1991 or the coalition would use any means necessary to force the Iraqis from Kuwait, but he refused. So the UN's first objective was to gain control of the air. On January 16 a combined assault of cruise missiles and bombing sorties where discharged upon Iraqi command centers, airbases, and missile launchers to try and gain control of the air. Iraq retaliated by launching scud missiles against cities in Israel and Saudi Arabia. By January 23 a week later of the opening assault the coalition achieved air control another warning was issued to Saddam Hussein leave Kuwait by February 23 or risk a land battle. The coalition prepared for the assault. General Norman Schwarzkopf orchestrated a extensive western deployment on the Arabian border to totally outflank Iraqi positions. February 23 came and went. Then on February 24 the primary assault began . It was so fierce that it would only last 100 hours. Armored units hastily penetrated Iraq and moved towards Kuwait. As the other armored units pushed from the south the Iraqi soldiers where abruptly surrounded and fled in confusion. On February 27 president George Bush announced a cease-fire. The United States suffered 148 killed in action, 407 wounded, 121 killed in nonhostile actions and 15 of the casualties where women . On June 1991 an estimation of Iraqi's killed was 100,000, 300,000 wounded, 150,000 deserted and 60,000 taken prisoner. The war cost Arab States $620 billion. The United States, Great Britain, and France received $84 billion for army expenses, but they spent $51 billion on support for the coalition soldiers. The damage estimated to the oil fields, factories, roads, and other buildings was $160 billion in Kuwait and $190 billion in Iraq.

Claude, James W.


Chrisjohn, Joseph Roger


William S. (Steven) Cutrer 


Davis, R. Paul


Hurst, James Edward